Effect of Core Stability Exercises and Treadmill Training on Balance in Children with Down Syndrome: Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Reham Saeed AlsakhawiEmail author
  • Mohamed Ali Elshafey
Original Research



Core stability exercises and treadmill training play a crucial role in physical therapy interventions and have an effect on balance in children with Down Syndrome (DS); however, whether core stability exercises or treadmill training has more effect on improving balance has not been investigated yet. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of core stability training versus treadmill exercises on balance in children with Down Syndrome.


Forty-five children aged 4–6 years with Down Syndrome were included in the study. The children were equally divided randomly into three groups. Group A received traditional physical therapy intervention strategies to facilitate the balance of participating children. Group B received the same as group A and additional core stability exercise training. Group C received the same intervention strategies as group A in conjunction with a treadmill exercise program. The children’s balance was evaluated using the Berg balance scale and the Biodex Balance System. Treatment sessions were for 60 min, thrice a week, for 8 consecutive weeks.


There were significance improvements in the three groups in functional balance and over all stability indices in favor of groups B and C.


Core stability and treadmill training improved balance in children with Down Syndrome and should be applied in conjunction with physical therapy programs.


Balance Berg balance scale Biodex balance system Core stability Down Syndrome Treadmill 



The authors would like to thank all participating children and their parents; in addition, the staff of the outpatient clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Egypt.


No funding or sponsorship was received for this study or publication of this article. The article processing charges were funded by the authors.


All named authors meet the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) criteria for authorship for this article, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given their approval for this version to be published.


Reham Saeed Alsakhawi and Mohamed Ali Elshafey have nothing to disclose.

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, Egypt (No: P.T.REC/013/001928) and it is in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki of 1964 and its later amendments. The parents of all participating children signed consent forms for participation.

Data Availability

The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are not publicly available (this paper is our work and it is part of our project that is not finished yet) but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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Copyright information

© Springer Healthcare Ltd., part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The Department of Physical Therapy for Pediatrics, Faculty of Physical TherapyCairo UniversityGizaEgypt
  2. 2.Rehabilitation Sciences Department, College of Health and Rehabilitation SciencesPrincess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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