Evolving myelodysplastic syndrome in an HIV patient with history of anal cancer and chemotherapy

  • Mingyue Shi
  • Xiaobang Hu
  • Mingyi ChenEmail author


The incidence of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) has been increasing with the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) therapy for HIV and chemotherapy for AIDS-related cancers. The classical dysplastic features in the granulocytes and megakaryocytes may not be easily appreciated. The most reliable distinguishing feature between the hematopoietic dysplasia of t-MDS and that of HIV infection rests on the identification of MDS-related cytogenetic aberrations. Here we report a patient with well-controlled HIV and history of chemotherapy for invasive anal squamous cell carcinoma who developed high-risk t-MDS with complex chromosome abnormalities. Our study emphasizes the importance of diagnosis of MDS in HIV-infected patients, even in the absence of dysplasia, if there are typical cytogenetics changes of MDS. Therefore, the early diagnosis and intervention of t-MDS in HIV-positive patients are critical in the treatment of this aggressiveness disease.


Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome HIV Cancer Chemotherapy 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. 1.
    Williamson BT, Leitch HA (2016) Higher risk myelodysplastic syndromes in patients with well-controlled HIV infection: clinical features, treatment, and outcome. Case Rep Hematol 2016:8502641PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fang RC, and Aboulafia DM (2016) HIV infection and myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaner J, Thibaud S, Sridharan A, Assal A, Polineni R et al (2016) HIV is associated with a high rate of unexplained multilineage cytopenias and portends a poor prognosis in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Blood 2016(128):4345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Takahashi K, Yabe M, Shapira I, Pierce S, Garcia-Manero G, Varma M (2012) Clinical and cytogenetic characteristics of myelodysplastic syndrome in patients with HIV infection. Leuk Res 36:1376–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rieg S, Lubbert M, Kern WV, Timme S, Gartner F et al (2009) Myelodysplastic syndrome with complex karyotype associated with long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy. Br J Haematol 145:670–673CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PathologyUT Southwestern Medical Center BioCenterDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations