Seismic attributes for characterization of a heavy-oil shaly-sand reservoir in the Muglad Basin of South Sudan

Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

Seismic attributes are often used to identify lithology and evaluate reservoir properties. However, interpretation based only on structural attributes and without knowledge of the Vp/Vs ratio can limit the ability to evaluate changes in heavy oil reservoirs. These limitations are often due to less obvious impedance differences. In order to investigate pieces of evidence of a heavy-oil shaly-sand reservoir from seismic data, besides geochemistry, we studied seismic attributes and characterized the reservoir using seismic stack data and well logging data. The study area was the Muglad rift basin in South Sudan. We conducted a seismic complex analysis to evaluate the target reservoir. To delineate the frequency responses of the different lithological units, we applied the spectral decomposition method to the target reservoir. The most unexpected result was continuous bands of strong seismic reflectors in the target reservoir, which extended across the borehole. Spectral decomposition analysis showed that the low-frequency zone of 25 Hz dominant frequency was consistent with instantaneous attributes. This approach can identify lithology, reveal frequency anomalies, and filter the stacked section into low- and high-frequency bands. The heavy-oil reservoir zones exhibited velocity attenuation and the amplitude was strongly frequency dependent.

Key words

seismic attributes complex trace heavy-oil characterization shaly-sand Muglad Basin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Azeem, T., Yanchun, W., Khalid, P., Xueqing, L., Yuan, F., and Lifang, C., 2016, An application of seismic attributes analysis for mapping of gas bearing sand zones in the Sawan gas field, Pakistan. Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, 51, 723–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnes, A.E., 1991, Instantaneous frequency and amplitude at the envelope peak of a constant-phase wavelet. Geophysics, 56, 1058–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Benkhelil, J., 1989, The origin and evolution of the Cretaceous Benue Trough (Nigeria). Journal of African Earth Sciences (and the Middle East), 8, 251–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Castagna, J.L., Sun, S., and Seigfried, R.W., 2003, Instantaneous spectral analysis: detection of low frequency shadows associated with hydrocarbons. The Leading Edge, 22, 120–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chakraborty, A. and Okaya, D., 1995, Frequency-time decomposition of seismic data using wavelet-based methods. Geophysics, 60, 1906–1916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chopra, S. and Marfurt, K.J., 2005, Seismic attributes–a historical perspective. Geophysics, 70, 3SO–28SO.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dumitrescu, C.C. and Lines, L., 2009, Case study of a heavy oil reservoir interpretation using VP/VS ratio and other seismic attributes. 79th Annual International Meeting of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (Expanded Abstracts), Houston, Oct. 25–30, p. 1765–1769.Google Scholar
  8. Ebrom, D., 2004, The low-frequency gas shadow on seismic sections. The Leading Edge, 23, 772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fahmy, W.A., Matteucci, G., Butters, D., and Zhang, J., 2005, Successful application of spectral decomposition technology toward drilling of a key offshore development well. 75th Annual International Meeting of the Society of Exploration Geophysicists (Expanded Abstracts), Houston, Nov. 6–11, p. 262–264.Google Scholar
  10. Fairhead, J.D., 1986, Geophysical controls on sedimentation within the African Rift Systems. In: Frostick, L.E., Renaut, R.W., Reid, I., and Tiercelin, J.J. (eds.), Sedimentation in the African Rifts. The Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 25, p. 19–27.Google Scholar
  11. Fairhead, J.D., 1988, Mesozoic plate tectonic reconstruction of the central South Atlantic Ocean: the role of the west and central African rift system. Tectonophysics, 155, 181–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Farnbach, J.S., 1975, The complex envelope in seismic signal analysis. The Seismological Society of America Bulletin, 65, 951–962.Google Scholar
  13. Gabor, D., 1946, Theory of communication. Part 1: The analysis of information. Journal of the Institution of Electrical Engineers–Part III: Radio and Communication Engineering, 93, 429–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Genik, G.J., 1993, Petroleum geology of Cretaceous–Tertiary rift basins in Niger, Chad, and Central African Republic. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 77, 1405–1434.Google Scholar
  15. Giedt, N.R., 1990, Unity field–Sudan, Muglad Rift Basin, Upper Nile province. In: Beaumont, E.A. and Foster, N.H. (eds.), Structural Traps III: Tectonic Fold and Fault Traps. AAPG Treatise of Petroleum Geology, Atlas of Oil and Gas Fields, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Tulsa, 1990, p. 177–197.Google Scholar
  16. Goloshubin, G.M., Verkhovsky, A.M., and Maurov, V.V., 1996, Laboratory experiments of seismic monitoring. 58th European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers meeting (Expanded Abstract), Amsterdam, Jun. 3–7, P074.Google Scholar
  17. Goloshubin, G.M., Korneev, V.A., and Vingalov, V.M., 2002, Seismic low frequency effects from oil-saturated reservoir zones. International Meeting of Society of Exploration Geophysics (Expanded Abstract), Salt Lake City, Jan. 3, p. 1813–1816.Google Scholar
  18. Goloshubin, G., Schuyver, C.V., Korneev, C.V., Silin, D., and Vingalov, V., 2006, Reservoir imaging using low frequencies of seismic reflections. The Leading Edge, 25, 527–531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kalkomey, C.T., 1997, Potential risks when using seismic attributes as predictors of reservoir properties. The Leading Edge, 16, 247–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Li, M., Cheng, D., Pan, X., Dou, L., Hou, D., Shi, Q., Wen, Z., Tang, Y., Achal, S., Milovic, M., and Tremblay, L., 2010, Characterization of petroleum acids using combined FT-IR, FT-ICR-MS and GC-MS: implications for the origin of high acidity oils in the Muglad Basin, Sudan. Organic Geochemistry, 41, 959–965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li, Z.C. and Wang, Q.Z., 2007, A review of research on mechanism of seismic attenuation and energy compensation. Prospecting Geophysics, 22, 1147–1152.Google Scholar
  22. Liner, C., Li, C.F., Gersztenkorn, A., and Smythe, J., 2004, SPICE: a new general seismic attribute. 72nd Annual International Meeting of society of Exploration Geophysics (Expanded Abstract), Denver, Oct. 10–15, p. 433–436.Google Scholar
  23. Lines, L., Zou, Y., Zhang, A., Hall, K., Embleton, J., Palmiere, B., Reine, C., Bessette, P., Cary, P., and Secord, D., 2005, Vp/Vs characterization of a heavy-oil reservoir. The Leading Edge, 24, 1134–1136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu, J. and Marfurt, K.J., 2007, Instantaneous spectral attributes to detect channels. Geophysics, 72, 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mallat, S. and Zhang, Z., 1993, Matching pursuit with time-frequency dictionaries. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Transactions on Signal processing, 41, 3397–3415.Google Scholar
  26. McHargue, T.R., Heidrick, T.L., and Livingstone, J., 1992, Tectonostratigraphic development of the interior Sudan Rifts, Central Africa. Tectonophysics, 213, 187–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mohamed, A.Y., Iliffe, J.E., Ashcroft, W.A., and Whiteman, A.J., 2000, Burial and maturation history of the Heglig Field area, Muglad Basin, Sudan. Journal of Petroleum Geology, 23, 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mohamed, A.Y., Pearson, M.J., Ashcroft, W.A., and Whiteman, A.J., 2002, Petroleum maturation modelling, Abu Gabra–Sharaf area, Muglad Basin Sudan. Journal of African Earth Science, 35, 331–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Partyka, G., Gridley, J., and Lopez, J., 1999, Interpretational application of spectral decomposition in reservoir characterization. The Leading Edge, 18, 353–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Prokoph, A. and Barthelmes, F., 1996, Detection of nonstationarities in geologic time series: wavelet transform of chaotic and cyclic sequences. Computer and Geoscience, 22, 1097–1108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Raeesi, M., Moradzadeh, A., Doulati Ardejani, F., and Rahimi, M., 2012, Classification and identification of hydrocarbon reservoir lithofacies and their heterogeneity using seismic attributes, logs data and artificial neural networks. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, 82, 151–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raef, A.E., Mattern, F., Phillip, C., and Totten, M.W., 2015, 3D seismic attributes and well-log facies analysis for prospect identification and evaluation: interpreted palaeoshoreline implications, Weirman Field, Kansas, USA. Journal of Petroleum science and Engineering, 133, 40–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robertson, J.D. and Nogami, H.H., 1984, Complex seismic trace analysis of thin beds. Geophysics, 49, 344–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schrufer, P., Oterdoom, H., and Faber, A., 2002, Thar Jath 3D Interpretation. Geological Research Authority of Sudan, Khartoum, Repot (SD–G).Google Scholar
  35. Sicking, C.J., 1978, Modeling with the complex trace. 48th Annual International Meeting of society of Exploration Geophysics (Expanded Abstract), San Francisco, Oct. 29–Nov. 2, p. 1484–1487.Google Scholar
  36. Stark, T.J., 2009, Frequency enhancement via an integer multiplier or just another GeoWizardry attribute? 79th Annual International Meeting of society of Exploration Geophysics (Expanded Abstract), Houston, Oct. 25–30, p. 1092–1096.Google Scholar
  37. Taner, M.T. and Sheriff, R.E., 1977, Application of amplitude, frequency, and other attributes to stratigraphic and hydrocarbon determination. In: Payton, C.E. (ed.), Application of Seismic Reflection Configuration to Stratigraphic Interpretation. Association of American Geologists, Memoir, 26, p. 301–327.Google Scholar
  38. Taner, M.T., Koehler, F., and Sheriff, R.E., 1979, Complex seismic trace analysis. Geophysics, 44, 1041–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Turner, B.J., 1994, Fracture determination from shear wave splitting analysis of single-source vertical seismic profiles: Unpublished honours thesis, University of Queensland, Brisbane.Google Scholar
  40. Tewari, R.D., Malik, M.M., Idris, M.A.I., Naganathan, S., and Pleshkov, D., 2006, Development of small size heavy oil field with innovative technology. Society of Petroleum Engineers (Expanded Abstract), Canton, Oct. 11–13, 103841, p. 1–10.Google Scholar
  41. Vail, J.R., 1978, Outline of the geology and mineral deposits of the Democratic Republic of the Sudan and adjacent areas. Institute of Geological sciences. In: Overseas Geology and Mineral Resources, HMSO London, p. 49–66.Google Scholar
  42. Watson, I.A., Lines, L.R., and Brittle, K.F., 2002, Heavy-oil reservoir characterization using elastic wave properties. The Leading Edge, 2, 736–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Whiteman, A.J., 1971, The Geology of the Sudan Republic. Clarendon Press, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 290 p.Google Scholar
  44. Yang, M., 2003, Monochromatic AVO: an indicator that sees through wave interference. Proceedings of the 73rd Annual International Meeting of Society of Exploration Geophysics (Expanded Abstract), Dallas, Oct. 26–31, p.208–210.Google Scholar
  45. Young, P.C., 1999, Nonstationary time series analysis and forecasting. Progress Environmental Science. 1, 3–48.Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, L., Zhu, D., Zhang, X., 2015, Seismic attributes methods for prediction of unconsolidated sand reservoirs of heavy oil. The Open Fuels and Energy Science Journal, 8, 14–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Association of Korean Geoscience Societies and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • William A. Deng
    • 1
    • 2
  • Taeyoun Kim
    • 1
    • 2
  • Seonghyung Jang
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Petroleum Resources TechnologyUniversity of Science and TechnologyDaejeonRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Petroleum and Marine DivisionKorea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral ResourcesDaejeonRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations