Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 189–195 | Cite as

Effects of nitrogen fertilization rate on tocopherols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol contents and enzymatic antioxidant activities in rice grains

  • Yu-Hsiang Tung
  • Lean-Teik NgEmail author
Research Article


Tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3) and γ-oryzanol (GO), major bioactive compounds of rice, are known to possess potent antioxidant activity. In this study, the objective was to determine the effects of nitrogen fertilization rate on contents of Toc, T3 and GO, and activities of enzymatic antioxidants in rice grains. Experiments were conducted on five different levels of nitrogen fertilization. Among the different treatments, grains of 2 N (two-fold of the recommended amount of nitrogen fertilizer) treatment showed the highest total Toc, total T3, α-T3, β-Toc, γ-Toc and γ-T3 levels, whereas 0 N (no treatment) group had the highest GO content. Increasing nitrogen fertilization significantly reduced the rice grain catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, but not the superoxide dismutase activities. Under 0 N and 0.5 N (low N fertilization) treatments, malondialdehyde and H2O2 contents in rice grains were significantly higher than that of other treatments. These results suggest that a two-fold increase in nitrogen fertilization favor the accumulation of Toc and T3 but not GO in rice grains.


Oryza sativa Nitrogen nutrient Bioactive components Enzymatic antioxidants 



The authors would like to thank the National Science Council of Taiwan for partial funding of this study under Grant Number NSC102-2313-B-002-045.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ChemistryNational Taiwan UniversityTaipeiTaiwan

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