Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 197–205 | Cite as

Studies on root anatomy, morphology and physiology of rice grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions

  • Amol S. Phule
  • Kalyani M. Barbadikar
  • M. S. Madhav
  • D. Subrahmanyam
  • P. Senguttuvel
  • M. B. B. Prasad Babu
  • P. Ananda KumarEmail author
Research Article


With the changing climate and rainfall abrasions, there is a gradual shift in the system of rice cultivation from traditional transplanted anaerobic to aerobic system. Studies on the root anatomical and morpho-physiological traits provide insights about the adaptation under aerobic conditions. We investigated the root anatomical and morpho-physiological traits in anaerobic (BPT 5204) and aerobic (CR Dhan 202) adapted rice genotypes grown under anaerobic and aerobic conditions. It was observed that the formation of fewer aerenchyma, thickened root and larger xylem area were critical anatomical traits associated with aerobic adaptation as compared to anaerobic conditions. The root length of CR Dhan 202 significantly increased under aerobic condition which may be attributed to its aerobic adaptation in terms of water acquisition. The photosynthetic rate was significantly higher in CR Dhan 202 as compared to that of BPT 5204 under the aerobic condition. The morpho-physiological results showed that the root length, total dry weight and photosynthetic rate are the key parameters for imparting aerobic adaptation. These root anatomical and morpho-physiological traits associated with the adaptation can be used as screening criteria for phenotyping and selection of genotypes suitable for aerobic system of cultivation. Such study is expected to expedite the development of rice aerobic varieties in aerobic breeding programmes.


Rice Aerobic Anaerobic Photosynthetic rate Root length Total dry weight 



The authors are thankful to Director, ICAR-IIRR for providing necessary facilities for research. Amol S. Phule acknowledges the University Grant Commission (UGC), New Delhi, India for providing National Fellowship for furnishing the doctoral programme.

Author contribution

PAK, MSM and KMB conceived and designed the experiments. ASP, KMB performed the experiments. ASP, KMB, PS and DS analyzed the data. ASP, KMB and MSM wrote the manuscript. PAK, MSM and KMB supervised the study. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Ali MH, Khatun MM, Mateo LG (2000) Influences of various level of water depth on rice growth in rice-fish culture under wetland rice ecosystems. J Geo Environ 4:23–30Google Scholar
  2. Armstrong W, Drew MC (2002) Root growth and metabolism under oxygen deficiency. In: Waisel Y et al (eds) Plant roots: the hidden half, 3rd edn. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 729–761Google Scholar
  3. Ashraf M, Harris PJC (2013) Photosynthesis under stressful environments: an overview. Photosynthetica 51:163–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Atlin GN, Lafitte HR, Tao D, Laza M, Amanle M, Courtois B (2006) Developing rice cultivars for high fertilizer upland systems in Asian tropics. Field Crop Res 97:43–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barbadikar KM, Phule AS, Sheshu Madhav M, Senguttuvel P, Subrahmanyam D, Balachandran SM, Ananda Kumar P (2016) Water scarcity: driving force for root studies in rice. ICAR-IIRR News Lett 14(1):7Google Scholar
  6. Bengough AG, McKenzie BM, Hallet PD, Valentine TA (2011) Root elongation, water stress, and mechanical impedance: a review of limiting stresses and beneficial root tip traits. J Exp Bot 62:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bouman BAM, Tuong TP (2001) Field water management to save water and increase its productivity in irrigate rice. Agric Water Manag 49:11–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chaves MM, Flexas J, Pinheiro C (2009) Photosynthesis under drought and salt stress: regulation mechanisms from whole plant to cell. Ann Bot 103:551–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark LJ, Aphale SL, Barraclough PB (2000) Screening the ability of rice roots to overcome the mechanical impedance of wax layers: importance of test conditions and measurement criteria. Plant Soil 219:187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Colmer TD (2003) Long distance transport of gases in plants: a perspective on internal aeration and radial oxygen loss from roots. Plant Cell Environ 26:17–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Evans DE (2003) Aerenchyma formation. New Phytol 161:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fillela I, Amaro JL, Penuelas J (1996) Relationship between photosynthetic radiation-use efficiency of barley canopies and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI). Physiol Plant 96:211–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Haryanto TAD, Suwarto S, Yoshida T (2008) Yield stability of aromatic upland rice with high yielding ability in Indonesia. Plant Prod Sci 11:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Henry A, Cal AJ, Batoto TC, Torres RO, Serraj R (2012) Root attributes affecting water uptake of rice (Oryza sativa) under drought. J Exp Bot 63:4751–4763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hiscox JD, Israelstam GF (1979) A method for the extraction of chlorophyll from leaf tissue without maceration. Can J Bot 57:1332–1334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jeong JS, Kim YS, Redillas MC, Jang G, Jung H, Bang SW et al (2013) OsNAC5 over expression enlarges root diameter in rice plants leading to enhanced drought tolerance and increased grain yield in the field. Plant Biotechnol J 11(1):101–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kato Y, Okami M (2010) Root growth dynamics and stomatal behaviour of rice (Oryza sativa L.) grown under aerobic and flooded conditions. Field Crops Res 117(1):9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kato Y, Okami M, Tajima R, Fujita D, Kobayashi N (2010) Root response to aerobic conditions in rice, estimated by Comair root length scanner and scanner-based image analysis. Field Crops Res 118:194–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kundur P, Sanjay R, Shashidhar H, Gowda V (2015) Study of rice (Oryza sativa L.) Root anatomy under aerobic and waterlogged conditions. Int J Appl Pure Sci Agric 1:18–26Google Scholar
  20. Mahmod IF, Barakbah SS, Osman N, Omar O (2014) Physiological response of local rice varieties to aerobic condition. J Agric Biol Sci 16:738–744Google Scholar
  21. Martin G, James Padmanathan PK, Subramanian E (2007) Identification on suitable rice variety adaptability to aerobic irrigation. J Agric Biol Sci 2(2):1–3Google Scholar
  22. Matsunami M, Matsunami T, Kokubun M (2009) Growth and yield of new rice for Africa (NERICAs) under different ecosystems and nitrogen levels. Plant Prod Sci 12:381–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Matsuo N, Mochizuki T (2009) Assessment of three water saving cultivations and different growth responses among six rice cultivars. Plant Prod Sci 12:514–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mostajeran A, Rahimi-Eichi V (2008) Drought stress effects on root anatomical characteristics of rice cultivars. Pak J Biol Sci 11:2173–2183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nguyen HT, Babu RC, Blum A (1997) Breeding for drought resistance in rice: physiology and molecular genetics considerations. Crop Sci 37:1426–1434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nguyen NT, Cuang VP, Dinh NN, Toshihiro M (2015) Genotypic variation in morphological and physiological characteristics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under aerobic conditions. Plant Prod Sci 18(4):501–513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Osakabe Y, Osakabe K, Shinozaki K, Tran LP (2014) Response of plants to water stress. Front Plant Sci 5:86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Patel DP, Das A, Munda GC, Ghosh PK, Sandhya J, Kumar M (2010) Evaluation of yield and physiological attributes of high-yielding rice varieties under aerobic and flood-irrigated management practices in mid-hills ecosystem. Agric Water Manag 97(9):1269–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Phule AS, Barbadikar KM, Madhav MS, Senguttuvel P, Babu MBBP, Ananda Kumar P (2018) Genes encoding membrane proteins showed stable expression in rice under aerobic condition: novel set of reference genes for expression studies. 3. Biotech 8(9):383. Google Scholar
  30. Pradhan B, Kundu S, Kundagrami S (2016) Shoot and root anatomy and reduce increase of aerenchyma diameter linked with submergence tolerance in rice (Oryza Sativa L.). Imp J Interdiscip Res 2(11):260–267Google Scholar
  31. Price AH, Tomos AD (1997) Genetic dissection of root growth in rice (Oryza sativa L.): II: mapping quantitative trait loci using molecular markers. Theor Appl Genet 95:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Redillas MCFR, Jeong JS, Kim YS, Jung H, Bang SW, Choi YD et al (2012) The over expression of OsNAC9 alters the root architecture of rice plants enhancing drought resistance and grain yield under field conditions. Plant Biotechnol J 10:792–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sanchez RA, Hall AJ, Trapani N, Cohen R (1983) Effects of water stress on the chlorophyll content, nitrogen level and photosynthesis of leaves of two maize genotypes. Photosynth Res 4:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sandhu N, Jain S, Battan KR, Jain RK (2012) Aerobic rice genotypes displayed greater adaptation to water-limited cultivation and tolerance to polyethyleneglycol-6000 induced stress. Physiol Mol Biol Plants 18:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sandhu N, Jain S, Kumar A, Mehla BS, Jain R (2013) Genetic variation, linkage mapping of QTL and correlation studies for yield, root, and agronomic traits for aerobic adaptation. BMC Genet 14:104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sandhu N, Torres RO, Cruz MT, Maturan PC, Jain R, Kumar A, Henry A (2015) Traits and QTLs for development of dry direct-seeded rainfed rice varieties. J Exp Bot 66:225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sandhu N, Raman AK, Torres RO, Audebert A, Dardou A, Kumar A, Henry A (2016) Rice root architectural plasticity traits and genetic regions for adaptability to variable cultivation and stress conditions. Plant Physiol 171:2562–2576Google Scholar
  38. Shashidhar HE (2007) Aerobic rice: an efficient water management strategy for rice production. Food Water Sec Dev Ctries Chapter 12:131–139Google Scholar
  39. Suralta RR, Inukai Y, Yamauchi A (2008) Genotypic variations in responses of lateral root development to transient moisture stresses in rice cultivars. Plant Protect Sci 11:324–335Google Scholar
  40. Tuong TP, Bouman BAM, Mortimer M (2005) More rice, less water integrated approaches for increasing water productivity in irrigated rice based systems in Asia. Plant Prod Sci 8:231–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uga Y, Ebana K, Abe J, Morita S, Okuno K, Yano M (2009) Variation in root morphology and anatomy among accessions of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) with different genetic backgrounds. Breed Sci 59:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Wissuwa M, Tobias K, Terry JR (2016) From promise to application: root traits for enhanced nutrient capture in rice breeding. J Exp Bot 67(12):3605–3615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Yadav R, Courtois B, Huang N, Mclaren G (1997) Mapping gene controlling root morphology and root distribution in a double-haploid population of rice. Theor Appl Genet 94:252–619CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yamamoto A, Nakamura T, AduGyamfi JJ, Saigusa M (2002) Relationship between chlorophyll content in leaves of sorghum and pigeon pea determined by extraction method and by chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502). J Plant Nutr 25:2295–2301CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amol S. Phule
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kalyani M. Barbadikar
    • 1
  • M. S. Madhav
    • 1
  • D. Subrahmanyam
    • 1
  • P. Senguttuvel
    • 1
  • M. B. B. Prasad Babu
    • 1
  • P. Ananda Kumar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Biotechnology DivisionICAR-Indian Institute of Rice ResearchRajendranagar, HyderabadIndia
  2. 2.Institute of BiotechnologyProfessor Jayashankar Telangana State Agricultural UniversityHyderabadIndia

Personalised recommendations