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A comparison of the transcriptomes between diploid and autotetraploid Paulownia fortunei under salt stress

  • Zhe Wang
  • Zhenli Zhao
  • Guoqiang Fan
  • Yanpeng Dong
  • Minjie Deng
  • Enkai Xu
  • Xiaoqiao Zhai
  • Heping Cao
Research Article

Abstract

Paulownia is a tree species grown in many countries. Our previous study reveals that tetraploid Paulownia fortunei is more tolerant to salt stress than its corresponding diploid tree. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in P. fortunei, the transcriptomes of normal and salt-stressed diploid and tetraploid were investigated. After assembling the clean reads, we obtained 130,842 unigenes. The unigenes were aligned against six public databases (Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, COG, KEGG, GO) to discover homologs and assign functional annotations. We retrieved 7983 and 15,503 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) between the normal and the salt-stressed diploid and tetraploid P. fortunei, respectively. We identified dozens of important DEUs including 3 related to photosynthesis, 10 related to plant growth and development and 11 related to osmolytes. Some of these DEUs were upregulated in tetraploid compared to diploid and others were upregulated under salt stress. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction verified the expression patterns of 15 unigenes. Our results provided insights into the molecular aspects why tetraploid is stronger and more energetic than diploid under saline environment. This study provides useful information for further studies on the molecular mechanisms of salt tolerance in other tree plants.

Keywords

Paulownia fortunei Transcriptome Salt stress Diploid Tetraploid 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Key Science and Technology Program of Henan Province of China (No. 152107000097), the Natural Science Foundation of Henan Province of China (No. 162300410158), and the Distinguished Talents Foundation of Henan Province of China (No. 174200510001).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Supplementary material

12298_2018_578_MOESM1_ESM.tif (517 kb)
Figure S1 Correlation coefficients of the gene expression of duplicate samples. Y-axis represents the logarithmic value of diploid (A) or tetraploid (B) expression, while Xaxis represents the logarithmic value of the corresponding duplicate samples. (TIFF 517 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM2_ESM.tif (344 kb)
Figure S2 Gene ontology (GO) classification of the P. fortunei unigenes. (TIFF 343 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM3_ESM.tif (340 kb)
Figure S3 Clusters of orthologous groups (COG) function classification of the P. fortunei unigenes. (TIFF 339 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM4_ESM.tiff (394 kb)
Figure S4 The cluster chart of top 100 most heterogeneously expressed unigenes’ expression in PF2 vs. PF2S, PF4 vs. PF4S, PF2 vs. PF4 and PF2S vs. PF4S. (TIFF 393 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM5_ESM.tiff (176 kb)
Figure S5a The cluster chart of common unigens’ expression in PF2 vs. PF2S and PF4 vs. PF4S (TIFF 175 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM6_ESM.tiff (285 kb)
Figure S5b The cluster chart of common unigens’ expression in PF2 vs. PF4 and PF2S vs. PF4S (TIFF 285 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM7_ESM.docx (14 kb)
Supplementary material 1 Assembly process of the unigenes. (DOCX 14 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM8_ESM.xlsx (2.8 mb)
Table S1 Unigene annotations based on their BLASTX hits in the Nr, KEGG, Swiss-Prot, KOG, and GO database. (XLSX 2895 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM9_ESM.xlsx (16 kb)
Table S2 KEGG annotation of unigenes. (XLSX 15 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM10_ESM.xlsx (3.6 mb)
Table S3 Differentially expressed unigenes in PF2 vs. PF2S, PF4 vs. PF4S, PF2 vs. PF4 and PF2S vs. PF4S. (XLSX 3695 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM11_ESM.xlsx (565 kb)
Table S4 Differentially expressed unigenes in comparison A, B, C and D. comparison A: consistently differentially expressed unigenes in PF2 vs. PF2S and PF4 vs. PF4S. comparison B: Inconsistently differentially expressed unigenes in PF2 vs. PF2S and PF4 vs. PF4S. comparison C : differentially expressed unigenes up-regulated in both PF2S vs. PF4S and PF2 vs. PF4, up-regulated in PF2S vs. PF4S and down-regulated in PF2 vs. PF4. comparison D: differentially expressed unigenes down-regulated in both PF2S vs. PF4S and PF2 vs. PF4, down-regulated in PF2S vs. PF4S and up-regulated in PF2 vs. PF4 . (XLSX 564 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM12_ESM.xlsx (226 kb)
Table S5 GO enrichment result for differentially expressed unigenes comparison A, B, C and D. (XLSX 226 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM13_ESM.xlsx (40 kb)
Table S6 KEGG pathway analysis results for differentially expressed unigenes in comparison A, B, C and D (XLSX 39 kb)
12298_2018_578_MOESM14_ESM.xlsx (12 kb)
Table S7 Key DEUs related to photosynthesis, plant growth and osmolytes. (XLSX 12 kb)

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Copyright information

© Prof. H.S. Srivastava Foundation for Science and Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhe Wang
    • 1
  • Zhenli Zhao
    • 1
  • Guoqiang Fan
    • 1
  • Yanpeng Dong
    • 1
  • Minjie Deng
    • 1
  • Enkai Xu
    • 1
  • Xiaoqiao Zhai
    • 2
  • Heping Cao
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of PaulowniaHenan Agricultural UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Henan Academy of ForestryZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research ServiceU.S. Department of AgricultureNew OrleansUSA

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