Advertisement

Metabolic Bone Profile of Healthy Adult North Indian Population from Chandigarh Urban Bone Epidemiological Study (CUBES)

  • Anshita Aggarwal
  • Sant Ram
  • Abhilasha Garg
  • Rimesh Pal
  • Anil Bhansali
  • Priyanka Singh
  • Sadhna Sharma
  • J. S. Thakur
  • Naresh Sachdeva
  • Sanjay Kumar BhadadaEmail author
Original Research Article
  • 3 Downloads

Abstract

We aimed to estimate metabolic bone profile in a large cohort of healthy, adult Indian population to generate reference standards of serum calcium, phosphate and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25 (OH) Vitamin D and iPTH, and also to find out the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency in healthy population. Apparently healthy people in the age group of 20–80 years, residing in the union territory of Chandigarh were chosen. Fasting samples for serum calcium, phosphate, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), 25 (OH) D and iPTH were collected and were processed on the same day. We recruited 930 healthy subjects from different subsectors of Chandigarh. Final analysis was done for 915 subjects. Out of this, 530 (58%) were women and 385 (42%) were men. The study participants were divided into two groups, less than and more than 50 years for the men and pre and post-menopausal for the women. The serum calcium, phosphate, ALP and iPTH were significantly higher in the post-menopausal women compared to the pre-menopausal women. The median plasma 25 (OH) D in men and women was 12.5 ng/mL and 14.3 ng/mL, respectively. 25 (OH) D deficiency was seen in 65.4% of individuals. 25 (OH) D levels co-related negatively with iPTH levels (r = − 0.4, p < 0.0001), and showed an increasing trend with age. We have thus presented metabolic bone profile of healthy, adult north Indian population. These reference values can be used for diagnosis and monitoring of various MBDs. Vitamin D deficiency is still rampant in our population in spite of increasing awareness.

Keywords

Calcium Vitamin D Phosphate ALP 

Notes

Funding

None received.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors have no conflicts of interest to report.

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

The research involves human volunteers.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent was taken from all the participants.

References

  1. 1.
    Bhansali A. Metabolic bone disease: newer perspectives. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;16(Suppl 2):S140–1.  https://doi.org/10.4103/2230-8210.104023.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lane NE. Chapter 101—metabolic bone disease. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O’Dell JR, editors. Kelley and Firestein’s textbook of rheumatology. 10th ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2017. p. 1730–17504.e4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Defining, establishing, and verifying reference intervals in the clinical laboratory; proposed guideline, 3rd edn. C28-A3. Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, 940 West Valley Road, Suite 1400, Wayne, Pennsylvania, USA.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kish L. A procedure for objetive respondent selection within the household. Am Stat Assoc J. 1949;44(247):380–7.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1949.10483314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Holick MF, Binkley NC, Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Gordon CM, Hanley DA, Heaney RP, et al. Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011;96(7):1911–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Marwaha RK, Tandon N, Garg MK, Kanwar R, Narang A, Sastry A, et al. Bone health in healthy Indian population aged 50 years and above. Osteoporos Int. 2011;22(11):2829–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Meena D, Khatkhatay MI, Vijaya T, Zakiya A. Changes in cytokines, biomarkers of bone turnover and hormones are associated with bone loss in postmenopausal Indian women. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2012;10(1):399–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jada MR, Perugu B, Chalasani S, Parvathi G. Evaluation of biochemical and bone density parameters in premenopausal and postmenopausal women: Int J Biol Med Res. 2013;4(3):3441–3.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jorde R, Sundsfjord J, Bønaa KH. Determinants of serum calcium in men and women. The Tromsø Study. Eur J Epidemiol. 2001;17(12):1117–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mukherjee A, editor. Population based reference standards of peak bone mineral density of indian males and females-an ICMR multi-centre task force study. osteoporosis international; 2010: springer london ltd 236 grays inn rd, 6th floor, london wc1x 8hl, England. 2010.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cirillo M, Bilancio G, Marcarelli F. Ageing and changes in phosphate transport: clinical implications. J Nephrol. 2010;23(Suppl 16):S152–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour J-P, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporos Int. 2009;20(11):1807–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shetty S, Kapoor N, Naik D, Asha HS, Prabu S, Thomas N, et al. Osteoporosis in healthy South Indian males and the influence of life style factors and vitamin D status on bone mineral density. J Osteoporos. 2014;2014:1–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Clinical Biochemists of India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anshita Aggarwal
    • 1
  • Sant Ram
    • 2
  • Abhilasha Garg
    • 1
  • Rimesh Pal
    • 1
  • Anil Bhansali
    • 1
  • Priyanka Singh
    • 1
  • Sadhna Sharma
    • 2
  • J. S. Thakur
    • 3
  • Naresh Sachdeva
    • 1
  • Sanjay Kumar Bhadada
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of EndocrinologyPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryPGIMERChandigarhIndia
  3. 3.Department of Community MedicinePGIMERChandigarhIndia

Personalised recommendations