Two-way approach for deformation analysis of non-crimp fabrics in uniaxial bias extension tests based on pure and simple shear assumption
- 88 Downloads
In-plane shear is considered as the main deformation mechanism during the forming of fabrics on double curved geometries. Non-Crimp Fabrics (NCFs) are more and more used in the industry thanks to their high mechanical performances. The uniaxial bias extension (UBE) test is commonly used for characterizing the in-plane shear behavior of fabrics. However, presence of slippages calls the reliability of this test into question for NCF material. These slippages lead to a macroscopic kinematic which does not respect the fundamental hypotheses of UBE test theory. The variety of NCF architectures is usually pointed while the lack of standardized experimental methods is seldom discussed. The first section of this paper presents a two-way approach to detect slippage on an NCF. This approach is based on two kinematical descriptions of the UBE test. The first one assumes a pure shear behavior whereas the second one assumes a simple shear behavior. These behaviors correspond respectively to the rotation of fibers and to the slippage of fibers from a macroscopic point of view. In the second section, the two-way approach is used to analyze experimental UBE tests. This investigation highlights the influence of the sample width on the deformation mode during a UBE test. More precisely, it is shown that increasing the sample width of NCF specimens improves the UBE test reliability.
KeywordsBias extension test Textile composite Non-crimp fabric Pure shear Simple shear Kinematic Experimental study
The authors want to acknowledge the members of the Fast FORM project consortium (Arkema, Chomarat, Compose Group, Coriolis, ESI Group, Faurecia, Hexion, Hutchinson, Institut de Soudure Group, Innovation Plasturgie Composites, Owens Corning, Pinnette Emidecau Industries, PSA Group, Renault, Sise), the IRT M2P and the GEMTEX laboratory for their support.
This research received the funding from the PIA (Programme Investissements d’Avenir) and the industrial consortium (Arkema, Chomarat, Compose Group, Coriolis, ESI Group, Faurecia, Hexion, Hutchinson, Institut de Soudure, Innovation Plasturgie Composites, Owens Corning, Pinnette Emidecau Industries, PSA Group, Renault, SISE).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflicts of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- 3.De Luycker E (2009) Simulation et expérimentation en mise en forme de renforts composites 3D interlocks. Thèse, INSA, LyonGoogle Scholar
- 4.Bel S (2011) Analyse et simulation de la mise en forme des renforts de composites NCF. Thèse, INSA, LyonGoogle Scholar
- 11.Harrison P, Tan MK, Long AC (2005) “Kinematics of intra-ply slip in textile composites during Bias extension tests,” In 8th ESAFORM confGoogle Scholar
- 16.Krieger H, Gries T, Stapleton SE (2017) Shear and drape behavior of non-crimp fabrics based on stitching geometry. Int J Mater Form:1–13Google Scholar
- 17.Krieger H, Gries T, Stapleton SE (2017) Design of Tailored non-Crimp Fabrics Based on stitching geometry. Appl Compos MaterGoogle Scholar
- 21.Mallach A, Härtel F, Heieck F, Fuhr J-P, Middendorf P, Gude M (2016) Experimental comparison of a macroscopic draping simulation for dry non-crimp fabric preforming on a complex geometry by means of optical measurement. J Compos Mater:1–13Google Scholar
- 24.Colin D, Bel S, Hans T, Hartmann M (2018) “On the inter-stitch interaction in biaxial non-crimp fabrics,” In Esaform 2018Google Scholar
- 27.Lomov SV, Barburski M, Stoilova T, Verpoest I, Akkerman R, Loendersloot R, Thije RHW (2005) Carbon composites based on multiaxial multiply stitched preforms. Part 3: biaxial tension, picture frame and compression tests of the preforms. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 36(9):1188–1206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Creech G (2006) “Mesoscopic finite element modelling of non-crimp fabrics for drape and failure analyses,” Thèse, Cranfield UniversityGoogle Scholar
- 30.Bel S, Hamila N, Boisse P (2011) “Characterisation of non-crimp fabric deformation mechanisms during preforming,” In 18th international conference on composite materialsGoogle Scholar
- 33.Pourtier J, Duchamp B, Kowalski M, Legrand X, Wang P, Soulat D (2018) “Analysis of defaults occured during bias extension tests on non-crimp fabrics,” In ECCM-18, no. June, pp. 1–7Google Scholar
- 34.Harrison P, Yu W-R, Long AC (2011) “Modelling the deformability of biaxial non-crimp fabric composites,” In Non-crimp fabric composites : Manufacturing, properties and applications, S. V. Lomov, Ed. Woodhead Publishers, pp. 161–182Google Scholar
- 36.Leutz D (2015) “Forming simulation of AFP materials layups material characterization simulation and validation,” Thèse, Technische Universität MünchenGoogle Scholar
- 38.J. Cao et al. (2004) “A cooperative benchmark effort on testing of woven composites,” in In proceedings of the 7th ESAFORM conference on material forming, pp. 305–308Google Scholar
- 40.Pourtier J, Duchamp B, Kowalski M, Legrand X, Wang P, Soulat D (2018) Bias extension test on a bi-axial non-crimp fabric powdered with a non-reactive binder system. AIP Conf Proc 1960:8–11Google Scholar