International Journal of Material Forming

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 857–874 | Cite as

Hot working of Ti-6Al-4V with a complex initial microstructure

  • Michael O. BodunrinEmail author
  • Lesley H. Chown
  • Josias W. van der Merwe
  • Kenneth K. Alaneme
Original Research


The hot deformation behaviour of wrought Ti-6Al-4V, with an initial microstructure of equiaxed and elongated α phase and intergranular β, was investigated. Isothermal hot compression testing was performed using a Gleeble 3500 thermomechanical simulator at strain rates of 0.01–10 s−1, up to a total strain of 0.6, and at temperatures of 750–950 °C, i.e. in the α + β phase region. The stress-strain data were used to develop constitutive equations and processing maps so that the stress exponent, activation energy and the most advantageous processing conditions for deforming the alloy could be determined. Microstructural examination for validation of the processing maps was carried out by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The average activation energy (Q) and stress exponent (n) at all strains were typical of dynamic recrystallisation values reported for α + β titanium alloys. The processing maps showed different features at different strains. There was no domain of instability when samples were deformed to a total strain of 0.2 but regions of instability were observed at strains of 0.5 and 0.6. The optimum processing conditions were identified at ~900 °C/0.05 s−1 and 940 °C/1.7 s−1(0.2 strain); 900 °C/0.02 s−1 and 945 °C/1.5 s−1 (0.5 strain); and 800 °C/0.01 s−1 and 940 °C/1.2 s−1 (0.6 strain). Power dissipation efficiency values and microstructural features confirmed that the main deformation mechanism corresponded to dynamic globularisation of the α phase. Increased transformation of α-Ti to β-Ti also enhanced flow softening at higher deformation temperatures.


Dynamic globularisation Flow softening Hot-deformation Processing map Constitutive equations 



The authors wish to acknowledge the African Materials Science and Engineering Network (A Carnegie-IAS RISE network) and the DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials for providing the financial support to carry out this research.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest for all authors



  1. 1.
    Boyer RR (1996) An overview on the use of titanium in the aerospace industry. Mater Sci Eng A 213(1):103–114Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Farthing TW (1987) The development of titanium and its alloys. Clin Mater 2(1):15–32Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lütjering G, Williams JC (2007) Engineering Materials: Titanium, Second. Berlin Heidelberg. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cui C, Hu B, Zhao L, Liu S (2011) Titanium alloy production technology, market prospects and industry development. Mater Des 32(3):1684–1691Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Polmear IJ (2005) 6 - Titanium alloys, in Light alloys, 4th edn. Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, pp 299–365Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dieter GE, Kuhn HA, and Semiatin SL (2003) Handbook of workability and process design, ASM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sen I, Kottada RS, Ramamurty U (2010) High temperature deformation processing maps for boron modified Ti–6Al–4V alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 527(23):6157–6165Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Semiatin SL, Seetharaman V, Weiss I (1997) The thermomechanical processing of alpha/beta titanium alloys. JOM 49(6):33–39Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Poletti C, Warchomicka F, Degischer HP (2010) Local deformation of Ti6Al4V modified 1 wt% B and 0.1 wt% C. Mater Sci Eng A 527(4–5):1109–1116Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sellars CM, McTegart WJ (1972) Hot workability. Int Metall Rev 17(1):1–24Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    McQueen HJ, Bourell DL (2012) Hot workability of metals and alloys. JOM 39(9):28–35Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Porntadawit J, Uthaisangsuk V, Choungthong P (2014) Modeling of flow behaviour of Ti–6Al–4V alloy at elevated temperatures. Mater Sci Eng A 599:212–222Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lin YC, Zhao CY, Chen MS, Chen DD (2016) A novel constitutive model for hot deformation behaviors of Ti–6Al–4V alloy based on probabilistic method. Appl Phys A Mater Sci Process 122(8):716Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guo L, Fan X, Yu G, Yang H (2016) Microstructure control techniques in primary hot working of titanium alloy bars: a review. Chin J Aeronaut 29(1):30–40Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sen I, Tamirisakandala S, Miracle DB, Ramamurty U (2007) Microstructural effects on the mechanical behavior of B-modified Ti–6Al–4V alloys. Acta Mater 55(15):4983–4993Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Souza PM, Beladi H, Rolfe B, Singh R, Hodgson PD (2015) Softening behavior of Ti6Al4V alloy during hot deformation. Mater Sci Forum 828–829:407–412Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lin YC, Chen XM (2011) A critical review of experimental results and constitutive descriptions for metals and alloys in hot working. Mater Des 32(4):1733–1759Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Prasad YVRK, Seshacharyulu T (1998) Modelling of hot deformation for microstructural control. Int Mater Rev 43(6):243–258Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sellars CM (1990) Modelling microstructural development during hot rolling. Mater Sci Technol 6(11):1072–1081Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Peng X, Guo H, Shi Z, Qin C, Zhao Z (2013) Constitutive equations for high temperature flow stress of TC4-DT alloy incorporating strain, strain rate and temperature. Mater Des 50:198–206Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Peng W, Zeng W, Wang Q, Yu H (2013) Comparative study on constitutive relationship of as-cast Ti60 titanium alloy during hot deformation based on Arrhenius-type and artificial neural network models. Mater Des 51:95–104Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Zener C, Hollomon JH (1944) Effect of strain rate upon plastic flow of steel. J Appl Phys 15(1):22–32Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Johnson JR and Cook WH (1983) A constitutive model and data for metals subjected to large strains, high strain rates and high temperatures. 7th international symposium on ballistics, Den Haag, the Netherlands 21:541–547Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Khan AS, Sung Suh Y, Kazmi R (2004) Quasi-static and dynamic loading responses and constitutive modeling of titanium alloy. Int J Plast 20(12):2233–2248zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lin YC, Liu G (2010) A new mathematical model for predicting flow stress of typical high-strength alloy steel at elevated high temperature. Comput Mater Sci 48(1):54–58Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lin YC, Chen MS, Zhong J (2008) Constitutive modelling for elevated temperature flow behaviour of 42CrMo steel. Comput Mater Sci 42(3):470–477Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Akbari Z, Mirzadeh H, Cabrera JM (2015) A simple constitutive model for predicting flow stress of medium carbon microalloyed steel during hot deformation. Mater Des 77:126–131Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cai J, Wang K, Zhai P, Li F, Yang J (2014) A modified Johnson-cook constitutive equation to predict hot deformation behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V alloy. J Mater Eng Perform 24(1):32–44Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nayan N, Singh G, Murty SVSN, Jha AK, Pant B, George KM, Ramamurty U (2014) Hot deformation behaviour and microstructure control in AlCrCuNiFeCo high entropy alloy. Intermetallics 55:145–153Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peng W, Zeng W, Wang Q, Yu H (2013) Characterization of high-temperature deformation behavior of as-cast Ti60 titanium alloy using processing map. Mater Sci Eng A 571:116–122Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Prasad YVRK, Seshacharyulu T (1998) Processing maps for hot working of titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 243(1–2):82–88Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Murty SVSN, Rao BN, Kashyap BP (2002) Development and validation of a processing map for zirconium alloys. Model Simul Mater Sci Eng 10(5):530–520Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ding R, Guo ZX, Wilson A (2002) Microstructural evolution of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy during thermomechanical processing. Mater Sci Eng A 327(2):233–245Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Souza PM, Beladi H, Singh R, Rolfe B, Hodgson PD (2015) Constitutive analysis of hot deformation behavior of a Ti6Al4V alloy using physical based model. Mater Sci Eng A 648:265–273Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Seshacharyulu T, Medeiros SC, Frazier WG, Prasad YVRK (2000) Hot working of commercial Ti–6Al–4V with an equiaxed α–β microstructure: materials modeling considerations. Mater Sci Eng A 284(1–2):184–194Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Seshacharyulu T, Medeiros SC, Morgan JT, Malas JC, Frazier WG, Prasad YVRK (2000) Hot deformation and microstructural damage mechanisms in extra-low interstitial (ELI) grade Ti–6Al–4V. Mater Sci Eng A 279(1–2):289–299Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Seshacharyulu T, Medeiros SC, Frazier WG and Prasad YVRK (2002) Microstructural mechanisms during hot working of commercial grade Ti–6Al–4V with lamellar starting structure. Mater Sci Eng A 325(1–2):112–125Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Guan RG, Je YT, Zhao ZY, Lee CS (2012) Effect of microstructure on deformation behavior of Ti–6Al–4V alloy during compressing process. Mater Des 36:796–803Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Warchomicka F, Poletti C, Stockinger M (2011) Study of the hot deformation behaviour in Ti–5Al–5Mo–5V–3Cr–1Zr. Mater Sci Eng A 528(28):8277–8285Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Poletti C, Germain L, Warchomicka F, Dikovits M, Mitsche S (2016) Unified description of the softening behavior of beta-metastable and alpha+beta titanium alloys during hot deformation. Mater Sci Eng A 651:280–290Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Xu Y, Yang XJ, Jiang XX, He Y, Du DN (2014) Hot deformation behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with a transitional microstructure in the isothermal hot compression. Adv Mater Res 1019:273–279Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roebuck B, Lord JD, Brooks M, Loveday MS, Sellars CM, Evans RW (2006) Measurement of flow stress in hot axisymmetric compression tests. Mater High Temp 23(2):59–83Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Prasad YVRK, Rao KP and Sasidhara S (2015) Hot working guide: a compendium of processing maps. ASM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Davis JR (2004) Tensile Testing, 2nd edn. ASM InternationalGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vander Voort G (2014) Metallographic preparation of titanium and its alloys. VacaeroGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Duan Y, Li P, Xue K, Zhang Q, Wang X (2007) Flow behaviour and microstructure evolution of TB8 alloy during hot deformation process. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 17(6):1199–1204Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xiao J, Li DS, Li XQ, Deng TS (2012) Constitutive modeling and microstructure change of Ti–6Al–4V during the hot tensile deformation. J Alloys Compd 541:346–352. Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jia W, Zeng W, Zhou Y, Liu J, Wang Q (2011) High-temperature deformation behaviour of Ti60 titanium alloy. Mater Sci Eng A 528(12):4068–4074Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Peng X, Guo H, Shi Z, Qin C, Zhao Z, Yao Z (2014) Study on the hot deformation behavior of TC4-DT alloy with equiaxed α+β starting structure based on processing map. Mater Sci Eng A 605:80–88Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fan XG, Zhang Y, Gao PF, Lei ZN, Zhan M (2017) Deformation behaviour and microstructure evolution during hot working of a coarse-grained Ti-5Al-5Mo-5V-3Cr-1Zr titanium alloy in beta phase field. Mater Sci Eng A 694:24–32Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Philippart I, Rack HJ (1998) High temperature dynamic yielding in metastable Ti–6.8 Mo–4.5 F–1.5 Al. Mater Sci Eng A 243(1):196–200Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Mesarovic SD (1995) Dynamic strain aging and plastic instabilities. J Mech Phys Solids 43(5):671–700MathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nemat-Nasser S, Guo WG, Cheng JY (1999) Mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of a commercially pure titanium. Acta Mater 47(13):3705–3720Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Prasad K, Varma VK (2008) Serrated flow behaviour in a near alpha titanium alloy IMI 834. Mater Sci Eng A 486(1):158–166Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Chuan W, Liang H (2018) Hot deformation and dynamic recrystallization of a near-beta titanium alloy in the β single phase region. Vacuum 156:384–401Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zeyfang R, Conrad H (1971) Deformation dynamics of a b.c.c. titanium alloy (15.2 at. % Mo) below 650°K (0.4 tm). Acta Metall 19(10):985–990Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lin YH, Hu KH, Kao FH, Wang SH, Yang JR, Lin CK (2011) Dynamic strain aging in low cycle fatigue of duplex titanium alloys. Mater Sci Eng A 528(13):4381–4389Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zhao D (1993) Temperature correction in compression tests. J Mater Process Technol 36(4):467–471Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Goetz RL, Semiatin SL (2001) The adiabatic correction factor for deformation heating during the uniaxial compression test. J Mater Eng Perform 10(6):710–717Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Jia W, Zeng W, Han Y, Liu J, Zhou Y, Wang Q (2011) Prediction of flow stress in isothermal compression of Ti60 alloy using an adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system. Mater Des 32(10):4676–4683Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Castellanos J, Rieiro I, Carsí M, Muñoz J, El Mehtedi M, Ruano AO (2009) Analysis of adiabatic heating and its influence on the Garofalo equation parameters of a high nitrogen steel. Mater Sci Eng A 517(1–2):191–196Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Soltani A (2013) Effect of Adiabatic Heating on Strain Induced Phase Transformations in Stainless Steels, Dissertation, Tempere University of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Zaera R, Rodríguez-Martínez JA, Rittel D (2013) On the Taylor–Quinney coefficient in dynamically phase transforming materials, application to 304 stainless steel. Int J Plast 40:185–201Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Rittel D, Wang ZG (2008) Thermo-mechanical aspects of adiabatic shear failure of AM50 and Ti6Al4V alloys. Mech Mater 40(8):629–635Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pérez-Castellanos JL, Rusinek A (2012) Temperature increase associated with plastic deformation under dynamic compression: application to aluminium alloy Al 6082. J Theor Appl Mech 50:377–398Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Briottet L, Jonas JJ, Montheillet F (1996) A mechanical interpretation of the activation energy of high temperature deformation in two phase materials. Acta Mater 44(4):1665–1672Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Chen HQ, Lin HZ, Guo L, Cao CX (2007) Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of Ti-6.5Al-1.5Zr-3.5Mo-0.3Si with an equiaxed α+β starting structure. Mater Sci Forum 546–549:1383–1388Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Xia Y, Long S, Zhou Y, Zhao J, Wang T, Zhou J (2016) Identification for the Optimal Working Parameters of Ti-6Al-4V-0.1Ru Alloy in a Wide Deformation Condition Range by Processing Maps Based on DMM. Mater Res 19:1449–1460Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Zong YY, Shan DB, Xu M, Li Y (2009) Flow softening and microstructural evolution of TC11 titanium alloy during hot deformation. J Mater Process Technol 209(4):1988–1994Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Momeni A, Abbasi SM (2010) Effect of hot working on flow behavior of Ti–6Al–4V alloy in single phase and two phase regions. Mater Des 31(8):3599–3604Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Chen H, Cao C, Guo L, Lin H (2008) Hot deformation mechanism and microstructure evolution of TC11 titanium alloy in β field. Trans Nonferrous Metals Soc China 18(5):1021–1027Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Perez PA, Nakajima H, Dyment F (2003) Diffusion in α-Ti and Zr. Mater Trans 44(1):2–13Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Cai J, Li F, Liu T, Chen B, He M (2011) Constitutive equations for elevated temperature flow stress of Ti–6Al–4V alloy considering the effect of strain. Mater Des 32(3):1144–1151Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Yang LC, Pan YT, Chen IG, Lin DY (2015) Constitutive relationship modeling and characterization of flow behavior under hot working for Fe–Cr–Ni–W–cu–co super-austenitic stainless steel. Metals 5(3):1717–1731Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Liu J, Zeng W, Lai Y, Jia Z (2014) Constitutive model of Ti17 titanium alloy with lamellar-type initial microstructure during hot deformation based on orthogonal analysis. Mater Sci Eng A 597:387–394Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mirzadeh H (2015) A simplified approach for developing constitutive equations for modeling and prediction of hot deformation flow stress. Metall Mater Trans A 46(9):4027–4037Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Mirzadeh H (2015) Constitutive modelling and prediction of hot deformation flow stress under dynamic recrystallization conditions. Mech Mater 85:66–79Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gao CY, Zhang LC, Yan HX (2011) A new constitutive model for HCP metals. Mater Sci Eng 528(13–14):4445–4452Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Balasundar I, Raghu T, Kashyap BP (2013) Modelling the hot working behavior of near-α titanium alloy IMI 834. Prog Nat Sci Mater Int 23(6):598–607Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Balasundar I, Raghu T, Kashyap BP (2014) Hot working and geometric dynamic recrystallisation behaviour of a near-α titanium alloy with acicular microstructure. Mater Sci Eng A 600:135–144Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Fan JK, Kou HC, Lai MJ, Tang B, Chang H, Li JS (2013) Characterization of hot deformation behavior of a new near beta titanium alloy: Ti-7333. Mater Des 49:945–952Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Huang LJ, Geng L, Li AB, Cui XP, Li HZ, Wang GS (2009) Characteristics of hot compression behavior of Ti–6.5Al–3.5Mo–1.5Zr–0.3Si alloy with an equiaxed microstructure. Mater Sci Eng A 505(1–2):136–143Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Alabort E, Kontis P, Barba D, Dragnevski K, Reed RC (2016) On the mechanisms of superplasticity in Ti–6Al–4V. Acta Mater 105:449–463Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Weiss I, Semiatin SL (1998) Thermomechanical processing of beta titanium alloy - an overview. Mater Sci Eng A 243(1–2):46–65Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Gao P, Zhan M, Fan X, Lei Z, Cai Y (2017) Hot deformation behavior and microstructure evolution of TA15 titanium alloy with non-uniform microstructure. Mater Sci Eng A 689:243–251Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Odenberger E-L, Oldenburg M, Thilderkvist P, Stoehr T, Lechler J, Merklein M (2011) Tool development based on modelling and simulation of hot sheet metal forming of Ti–6Al–4V titanium alloy. J Mater Process Technol 211(8):1324–1335Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael O. Bodunrin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Lesley H. Chown
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Josias W. van der Merwe
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Kenneth K. Alaneme
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Chemical and Metallurgical EngineeringUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong MaterialsHosted by University of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.African Materials Science and Engineering Network (AMSEN)Hosted by University of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringFederal University of Technology AkureAkureNigeria

Personalised recommendations