Advertisement

Forming rectangular tubes into complicated 3D shapes by combining three-roll push bending, twisting and rotary draw bending: the role of the fabrication loading history on the mechanical response

  • S. AncellottiEmail author
  • V. Fontanari
  • S. Slaghenaufi
  • E. Cortelletti
  • M. Benedetti
Original Research
  • 74 Downloads

Abstract

Tubular structures find wide application in the automotive context. In particular, rectangular cross-section tubes are used to fabricate structural frames via different techniques, such as Three-Roll-Push-Bending with the addition of twisting component (TRPBT) and the Rotary Draw Bending (RDB). However, whether the accumulated plastic strains, hardening and residual stresses influence the load capacity of the tubular component is still unclear. This paper is intended to shed light on this issue. The load capacity of a tubular mock-up obtained by sequential combination of TRPBT and RDB has been empirically assessed by a destructive compression test. A finite element (FE) model has been devised and validated to analyse the manufacturing processes. This work puts in light the need to correctly model the compliance of the tool set-up for Roll Bending in the numerical calculations. The final shape of the mock-up obtained by FE analysis is the input of the numerical simulation of the compression test. The present modelling has shown clearly that the global resistance of a tubular component is sensitive to plastic strains, hardening and residual stresses resulting from the previous forming processes. Taking into account these three factors greatly improves the capability of the FE to model the mechanical response of the structural part.

Keywords

Three-roll-push-bending Twisting Rotary draw bending Rectangular tubes Compression test FEM Hardening Plastic strains Residual stresses; 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was financially supported by the Autonomous Region of Trento (Italy), within the research project SOLCO under the supervision of CRF (Centro Ricerche Fiat). The authors gratefully acknowledge BLM Group s.p.a (Cantù, CO, Italy) for performing bending tests. Furthermore we express our gratitude to Dr. Nicolò Corsentino (University of Trento) for CMM measurements and to Daniel Stimpfl for his precious contribute to the development of the FE model.

Compliance with ethical standards

This study was founded by the Autonomous Region of Trento (Italy), within the research project SOLCO. Each author declares that they have no conflict of interest and all investigations were conducted in conformity with ethical principles of research. The present work is the result of collaboration with CRF within the aforementioned research project. The company CRF has allowed this publication.

References

  1. 1.
    Erman Tekkaya A, Ben Khalifa N, Grzancic G, Hölker R (2014) Forming of lightweight metal components: need for new technologies. Procedia Engineering 81:28–37, ISSN 1877-7058.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2014.09.125
  2. 2.
    Tekkaya AE, Homberg W, Brosius A (2015) 60 excellent inventions in metal forming. Springer Vieweg, 2015. https://www.springer.com/gp/book/9783662463116. Accessed May 2018
  3. 3.
    Kleiner M, Geiger M, Klaus A (2003) Manufacturing of lightweight components by metal forming. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 52(2):521–542, ISSN 0007-8506.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-8506(07)60202-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chatti S, Kleiner M (2007) Manufacturing of profiles for lightweight structure. AIP Conference Proceedings 907:584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jeswiet J, Geiger M, Engel U, Kleiner M, Schikorra M, Duflou J, Neugebauer R, Bariani P, Bruschi S (2008) Metal forming progress since 2000. CIRP J Manuf Sci Technol 1(1):2–17, ISSN 1755-5817.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirpj.2008.06.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang H, Li H, Zhang ZY, Zhan M, Liu J, Li G (2012) Advances and trends on tube bending forming technologies. Chin J Aeronaut 25(1):1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1000-9361(11)60356-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vollertsen F, Sprenger A, Kraus J, Arnet H (1999) Extrusion, channel, and profile bending: a review. J Mater Process Technol 87(1-3):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Neugebauer R, Drossel WG, Lorenz U, Luetz N (2002) Hexabend—a new concept for 3D-free-form bending of tubes and profiles to preform hydroforming parts and Endform space-frame-components. Advanced Technology of Plasticity (JSTP) 2:1465–1470. https://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/BLCP%3ACN049986403/Hexabend-A-New-Concept-for-3D-Free-Form-Bending/
  9. 9.
    Murata M, Kuboti T, Takahashi K (2007) Characteristics of tube bending by MOS bending machine, proc. of the 2nd Int. Conf. On new forming technology. Bremen, Germany, pp 135–144Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Flehmig T, Kibben M, Kühni U, Ziswiler J (2006) Device for the free forming and bending of longitudinal profiles, particularly pipes, and a combined device for free forming and bending as well as draw bending longitudinal profiles, particularly pipes (2006), Int. patent with application no. PCT/EP2006/00252, published on 28.09.2006Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Geiger M, Sprenger A (1998) Controlled bending of aluminum extrusions. Annals of the CIRP 47(1):197–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Peter H (2013) Vatter, Raoul Plettke, process model for the Design of Bent 3-dimensional free-form geometries for the three-roll-push-bending process. Procedia CIRP 7:240–245 ISSN 2212-8271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Hagenah, D. Vipavc, R Plettke, M. Merklein, “Numerical model of tube freeform bending by three-roll-push-bending”, 2 International Conference on Engineering Optimization, September 6–9, 2010, Lisbon, PortugalGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Y.X. Zhu, Y.L. Liu, H. Yang, H.P. Li, (2013) Improvement of the accuracy and the computational efficiency of the springback prediction model for the rotary-draw bending of rectangular H96 tube. Int J Mech Sci, Volume 66, January 2013, Pages 224–232, ISSN 0020-7403,  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2012.11.012
  15. 15.
    Zhu YX, Liu YL, Li HP, Yang H (May 2013) Springback prediction for rotary-draw bending of rectangular H96 tube based on isotropic, mixed and Yoshida–Uemori two-surface hardening models. Mater Des 47:200–209, ISSN 0261-3069.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2012.12.018
  16. 16.
    Song F, He Y, Li H, Zhan M, Li G (October 2013) Springback prediction of thick-walled high-strength titanium tube bending. Chin J Aeronaut 26(5):1336–1345, ISSN 1000-9361.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cja.2013.07.039
  17. 17.
    Shen Zhang, Jianjun Wu, “Springback prediction of three-dimensional variable curvature tube bending”, Advances in Mechanical Engineering Vol 8, Issue 3, March-08-2016, doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1687814016637327
  18. 18.
    Yang M, Shima S (1988) Simulation of pyramid type three-roll bending process. Int J Mech Sci 30(12):877–886, ISSN 0020-7403.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0020-7403(88)90071-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hardt DE, Roberts MA, Stelson KA (1982) Closed-loop shape control of a roll-bending process. ASME. J. Dyn. Sys., Meas. Control 104(4):317–322.  https://doi.org/10.1115/1.3139715 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yu TX, Johnson W (February 1982) Influence of axial force on the elastic-plastic bending and springback of a beam. J Mech Work Technol 6(1):5–21, ISSN 0378-3804.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-3804(82)90016-X
  21. 21.
    Gerlach C (2010) Ein Beitrag zur Herstellung definierter Freiformbiegegeometrien bei Rohren und Profilen [A Contribution to the Manufacturing of Tubes and Profiles with Free Form Bending Geometries]. Shaker Verlag, AachenGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Engel B, Kersten S (2011) Aanalytical models to improve the three-roll-pushbending process, Steel research international, pp. 355–360Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kersten S (2013) Prozessmodelle zum Drei-Rollen-Schubbiegen von Rohrprofilen [process models for three-roll push bending of tubes]. Shaker Verlag, AachenGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Staupendahl D, Becker C, Tekkaya AE (2015) The impact of torsion on the bending curve during 3D bending of thin-walled tubes - a case study on forming helices. Key Eng Mater 651-653:1595–1601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Merklein M, Hagenah H, Cojutti M (2009) Investigations on three-roll bending of plain tubular components. Key Eng Mater 410-411:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shim D-S, Kim K-P, Lee K-Y (October 2016) Double-stage forming using critical pre-bending radius in roll bending of pipe with rectangular cross-section. J Mater Process Technol 236:189–203, ISSN 0924-0136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2016.04.033
  27. 27.
    Chatti S, Hermes M, Tekkaya AE, Kleiner M (2010) The new TSS bending process: 3D bending of profiles with arbitrary cross-sections. CIRP Ann Manuf Technol 59(1):315–318, ISSN 0007-8506.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cirp.2010.03.017 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hermes M, Chatti S, Weinrich A, Tekkaya AE (2008) Three-dimensional bending of profiles with stress superposition. Int J Mater Form 1(Suppl 1):133.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12289-008-0009-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu KX, Liu YL, Yang H (2013) An analytical model for the collapsing deformation of thin-walled rectangular tube in rotary draw bending. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 69(1-4):627–636.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-013-5042-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhan M, Yang H, Huang L (2006) A numerical-analytic method for quickly predicting Springback of numerical control bending of thin-walled tube. J Mater Sci Technol 22(5)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yang H, Jing Y, Mei Z, Heng L, Yongle K (June 2009) 3D numerical study on wrinkling characteristics in NC bending of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes with large diameters under multi-die constraints. Comput Mater Sci 45(4):1052–1067, ISSN 0927-0256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2009.01.010
  32. 32.
    Ancellotti S, Benedetti M, Fontanari V, Slaghenaufi S, Tassan M (2016) Rotary draw bending of rectangular tubes using a novel parallelepiped elastic mandrel. Int J Adv Manuf Technol 85(5-8):1089.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00170-015-8000-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Analysis User's Manual ABAQUS (2012) Version 6.11. In: SimuliaGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Plettke R, Vipavc D, Vatter PH (2011) Influence factors of three-roll-push-bending. Tekkaya, A.E. (Hrsg.): Proceedings of the 1st international tube and profile bending conference/4th DORP 2011- Dortmunder Kolloquium zum Rohr- und Profilbiege, S. 131–135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial EngineeringUniversity of TrentoTrentoItaly
  2. 2.Centro Ricerche Fiat (CRF), R&D EMEA Product Development Product Engineering Vehicle Research & InnovationMattarelloItaly

Personalised recommendations