International Journal of Material Forming

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 57–68 | Cite as

The influence of warm forming in natural aging and springback of Al-Mg-Si alloys

  • Vasco SimõesEmail author
  • Hervé Laurent
  • Marta Oliveira
  • Luís Menezes
Original Research


Warm forming is a very interesting solution to improve formability and reduce springback. Natural aging is an open issue for heat treatable aluminum alloys, since it causes variability in sheet metal forming operations, namely in the parts shape, as well as in-service behavior. Therefore, this work aims to study the contribution of warm forming to minimize the variability caused by natural aging and reduce the springback in sheet metal forming operations. The thermo-mechanical behavior of two Al-Mg-Si alloys, EN AW 6016-T4 and EN AW 6061-T6, is studied in function of temperature (from 22 to 300 °C) using uniaxial tensile tests, cylindrical cup tests and split ring (springback) tests. Moreover, for the EN AW 6016-T4, the study was also performed in function of the storage time (from 1 to 18 months). At 22 °C, the increase of the storage time leads to a clear increase of the yield stress and of the work hardening and, consequently, of the springback. Warm forming at temperatures between 200 and 250 °C, using a short exposure time, reduces the yield stress and the work hardening and, consequently, springback for both alloys. Moreover, the effect of natural aging is minimized. Thus, warm conditions can be used as an effective solution to minimize the variability caused by the natural aging and reduce the springback in forming operations of heat treatable aluminum alloys.


Al-Mg-Si alloys Natural aging Warm forming Springback 



The authors would like to acknowledge the funding that sponsored this research work: the national funds from the French Ministry of Higher Education and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) via the project P2020-PTDC/EMS-TEC/6400/2014 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016876) and by UE/FEDER funds through the program COMPETE 2020, under the project CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000014 (MATIS). The first author V. Simões is also grateful to the FCT for the PhD grant SFRH/BD/90669/2012. The authors are also grateful to Constellium (Estelle Muller) for supplying the material. Moreover, the authors acknowledge the technical staff of IRDL, for their help in some of the experimental procedures (Anthony Jégat and Hervé Bellegou).


This study was funded by the French Ministry of Higher Education and the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT) via the project P2020-PTDC/EMS-TEC/6400/2014 (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016876) and by UE/FEDER funds through the program COMPETE 2020, under the project CENTRO-01-0145-FEDER-000014 (MATIS). The first author V. Simões was also funded by the FCT for the PhD grant SFRH/BD/90669/2012.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag France SAS, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vasco Simões
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Hervé Laurent
    • 1
  • Marta Oliveira
    • 2
  • Luís Menezes
    • 2
  1. 1.Univ. Bretagne Sud, FRE CNRS 3744, IRDLLorientFrance
  2. 2.CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Coimbra, Polo IICoimbraPortugal

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