Advertisement

Association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

  • Takahide OkamotoEmail author
  • Akemi Ito
Original Article

Abstract

Background

Mammographic density (MD), the proportion of radiological dense breast, has been reported to be a strong risk factor for breast cancer in many studies. Epidemiological evidence indicates that alcohol consumption increases the risk of breast cancer. In Western countries, a positive association between alcohol consumption and MD has been reported.

Methods

To investigate the effect of alcohol consumption on MD, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of healthy women enrolled in a breast cancer screening program at the Ebina Health Service Center, Japan, in 2012, comprising 477 premenopausal women and 308 postmenopausal women. Alcohol consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) while adjusting for confounders.

Results

The study included 497 women with high breast density (HD group) and 288 women with low breast density (LD group). In all women, multivariate analysis revealed that the OR for HD was significantly increased among women with the highest alcohol intake (≥ 140 g/week of ethanol) compared with abstainers (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.9 p = 0.01). The linear trend with increasing alcohol consumption was statistically significant (p = 0.009).

Conclusion

MD was positively associated with alcohol consumption in Japanese women.

Keywords

Mammographic density Alcohol consumption 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the doctors, radiologists, and nursing and technical staff of the Ebina Health Service Center. We would like to thank Editage (http://www.editage.jp) for English language editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Warren R. Hormones and mammographic breast density. Maturitas Br J Cancer. 2004;49:67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boyd N, Guo H, Martin L, Sun L, Stone J, Fishell E, et al. Mammographic density and the risk and detection of breast cancer. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:227–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nagata C, Matsubara T, Fujita H, Nagao Y, Shibuya C, Kashiki Y. Mammographic density and the risk of breast cancer in Japanese women. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:2102–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wong CS, Lim GH, Gao F, Jakes RW, Offman and Chia KS, et al. Mammographic density and its interaction with other breast cancer risk factors in an Asian population. Br J Cancer. 2011;104:871–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, et al. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2011;378:1461–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Virginia L. Beatriz P, Carmen S, Marıa C, Pilar M, Carmen V, et al. Obstetric history and mammographic density: a population-based cross-sectional study in Spain. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012;132:1137–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Katherine R, Roslyn S, Francesmary M, Roberta N, Victor V, Joel W, et al. Longitudinal association of anthropometry with mammographic breast density in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Katherine. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1169–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hyuna Sung J, Ren J, Li, et al. Breast cancer risk factors and mammographic density among high-risk women in urban China. NPJ Breast Cancer. 2018;4:3.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41523-018-0055-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hongji D, Ye Y, Peishan W, Peifang L, Yali C, Li X. Distribution of mammographic density and its influential factors among Chinese women. Int J Epidemiol 2014;1240–1251.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ishihara S, et al. Association between mammographic breast density and lifestyle in Japanese women. Acta Med Okayama. 2013;67:145–51.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kawahara M, et al. Factors influencing breast density in Japanese women aged 40–49 in breast cancer screening mammography. Acta Med Okayama. 2013;67:213–7.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Suzuki R, Orsini N, Mignone L, Saji S, Wolk A. Alcohol intake and risk of breast cancer defined by estrogen and progesterone receptor status-a meta analysis of epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer. 2008;122:1832–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beral V, Hamajima N, Hirose K, Rohan T, Calle E, Heath C, et al. Alcohol, tobacco and breast cancer—collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 58515 women with breast cancer and 95067 women without the disease. Br J Cancer. 2002;87:1234–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Christensen T, Brand S, Cuzick J, Czene J, Sjolander KA, et al. Background risk of breast cancer influences the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density. T Trinh. British J Cancer 2015:1–7.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Maskarinec G, Takata Y, Pagano I, Lurie G, Wilkens L. Alcohol consumption and mammographic density in a multiethnic population. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:2579–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lisa M, Olga M, Helen G, Anna C, Gregory H, Martin Y. et al. Family history, mammographic density, and risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2010;19:456–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Freudenheim J, Ambrosone C, Moysich K, Vena J, Graham S, Marshall J, et al. Alcohol dehydrogenase 3 genotype modification of the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk. Cancer Causes Control. 1999;10:369–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaaks R, Rinaldi S, Key TJ, Berrino F, Peeters PH, Biessy C, et al. Postmenopausal serum androgens, oestrogens and breast cancer risk: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Endocr Relat Cancer. 2005;12:1071–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dorgan JF, Baer DJ, Albert PS, Judd JT, Brown ED, Corle DK, et al. Serum hormones and the alcohol–breast cancer association in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93:710–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Seitz HK, Pelucchi C, Bagnardi V, La Vecchia C, et al. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of alcohol and breast cancer: Update 2012. Alcohol. 2012;47:204–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Endogenous H, Breast Cancer Collaborative G, Key T, Appleby P, Reeves G, Roddam A, et al. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP3), and breast cancer risk: pooled individual data analysis of 17 prospective studies. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11:530–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kate W, Olivia F, Nichola J, Ben C, Valerie M, Elizabeth F, et al. Premenopausal mammographic density in relation to cyclic variations in endogenous sex hormone levels, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factors. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6490–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ziembicki S, Zhu J, Tse E, Martin L, Minkin S, Boyd N. The association between alcohol consumption and breast density: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev. 2017;26:170–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stanley P, Leong L, Zhen-Zhou S, Tse-Jia L, Gaurav A, Tomoo T, et al. Is breast cancer the same disease in Asian and Western countries? World J Surg. 2010;34:2308–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Marcela C, Elkan H, Daniel K, Beverly M, Richard M, Paul G, et al. Mammographic breast density race. AJR 2007;188:1147–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maskarinec G, Nagata C, Shimizu H, Kashiki Y. Comparison of mammographic densities and their determinants in women from Japan and Hawaii. Int J Cancer. 2002;102:29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Suzuki R, Iwasaki M, Inoue M, Sasazuki S. Alcohol consumption-associated breast cancer incidence and potential effect modifiers: the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. Int J Cancer. 2009;127:685–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Choi Y, Abel J, Neuhaus T, Ko V, Hamajima N, Tajima K, et al. Role of alcohol and genetic polymorphisms of CYP2E1 and ALDH2 in breast cancer development. Pharmacogenetics 2003;13:67–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yaghjyan L, Mahoney M, Succop P, Wones R, Buckholz J, Pinney S. Relationship between breast cancer risk factors and mammographic breast density in the Fernald Community Cohort. Br J Cancer. 2012;106:996–1003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ziv E, Shepherd J, Smith-Bindinan R, Kerlikowske K. Mammographic breast density and family history of breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2003;95:556–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Masala G, Ambrogetti D, Assedi M, Giorgi D, Del Turco MR, Palli D. Dietary and lifestyle determinants of mammographic breast density. A longitudinal study in a Mediterranean population. Int J Cancer. 2006;118:1782–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Harvey J, Bovbjerg V. Quantitative assessment of mammographic breast density: relationship with breast cancer risk. Radiology. 2004;30:29–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Garrido M, Ruiz-Perales F, Miranda J, Ascunce N, Isabel González I, Sánchez C, et al. Evaluation of mammographic density patterns: reproducibility and concordance among scales. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Health and Welfare Statistics Association. Alcohol. J Health Welfare Stat. 2000;9(Suppl):91–3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Breast Cancer Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Ebina Health Service CenterEbinaJapan

Personalised recommendations