Advertisement

Breast Cancer

, Volume 26, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

Axillary reverse mapping (ARM): where to go

  • Xuan ShaoEmail author
  • Bo Sun
  • Yanwen Shen
Review Article
  • 224 Downloads

Abstract

In the past decades, breast surgeons have changed the clinical practice in the surgical treatment of breast cancer, by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) instead of performing axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in axillary lymph node clinically negative breast cancer patients. ALND can also be avoided in SLN-positive patients who meet the Z-0011 criteria. However, the postoperative complications of SLNB and ALND, such as the secondary upper extremity lymphedema, are common and need effective solutions to prevent as soon as possible. The axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique has been developed to map and preserve arm lymphatic drainage during ALND and/or SLNB, thereby minimizing arm lymphedema. However, the success of ARM in reducing lymphedema has not been exactly determined. If ARM can be confirmed to be both effective and oncologically safe in preventing lymphedema, this technique should be recommended in the management of breast cancer treatment.

Keywords

Axillary reverse mapping Axillary lymph node dissection Sentinel lymph node biopsy Lymphedema Breast cancer 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author reports no conflicts of interest in this work.

References

  1. 1.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A. Cancer statistics 2017. CA Cancer J Clin. 2017;67(1):7–30. (PubMed PMID: 28055103. Epub 2017/01/06. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Early Breast Cancer Trialists’ Collaborative G. Effects of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy for early breast cancer on recurrence and 15-year survival: an overview of the randomised trials. Lancet. 2005;365(9472):1687–717. (PubMed PMID: 15894097).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kinoshita I, Fukami A, Nishi M, Kuno K, Kajitani T. An extended radical operation for breast cancer. Shujutsu Oper. 1969;23(3):281–90. (PubMed PMID: 5805593. Epub 1969/03/01.jpn).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Patey DH, Dyson WH. The prognosis of carcinoma of the breast in relation to the type of operation performed. Br J Cancer. 1948;2(1):7–13. (PubMed PMID: 18863724. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2007539).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Giuliano AE, Hawes D, Ballman KV, Whitworth PW, Blumencranz PW, Reintgen DS, et al. Association of occult metastases in sentinel lymph nodes and bone marrow with survival among women with early-stage invasive breast cancer. Jama. 2011;306(4):385–93. (PubMed PMID: 21791687. Epub 2011/07/28. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Donker M, van Tienhoven G, Straver ME, Meijnen P, van de Velde CJ, Mansel RE, et al. Radiotherapy or surgery of the axilla after a positive sentinel node in breast cancer (EORTC 10981–22023 AMAROS): a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 non-inferiority trial. Lancet Oncol. 2014;15(12):1303–10. (PubMed PMID: 25439688. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC4291166. Epub 2014/12/03. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ahmed M, Rubio IT, Kovacs T, Klimberg VS, Douek M. Systematic review of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer. Br J Surg. 2016;103(3):170–8. (PubMed PMID: 26661686. Epub 2015/12/15. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lucci A, McCall LM, Beitsch PD, Whitworth PW, Reintgen DS, Blumencranz PW, et al. Surgical complications associated with sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) plus axillary lymph node dissection compared with SLND alone in the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Trial Z0011. J Clin Oncol. 2007;25(24):3657–63. (PubMed PMID: 17485711. Epub 2007/05/09. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Halsted WS. The results of operations for the cure of cancer of the breast performed at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. Ann Surg. 1894;20(5):497–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Axelsson CK, Mouridsen HT, Zedeler K. Axillary dissection of level I and II lymph nodes is important in breast cancer classification. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG). Eur J Cancer (Oxford, England: 1990). 1992;28a(8–9):1415–8. (PubMed PMID: 1515262. Epub 1992/01/01. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Orr RK. The impact of prophylactic axillary node dissection on breast cancer survival—a Bayesian meta-analysis. Ann Surg Oncol. 1999;6(1):109–16. (PubMed PMID: 10030423. Epub 1999/02/25. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Krag DN, Single RM. Breast cancer survival according to number of nodes removed. Ann Surg Oncol. 2003;10(10):1152–9. (PubMed PMID: 14654470. Epub 2003/12/05. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Noguchi M, Miwa K, Michigishi T, Yokoyama K, Nishijima H, Takanaka T, et al. The role of axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer management. Breast Cancer (Tokyo, Japan). 1997;4(3):143–53. (PubMed PMID: 11091589. Epub 2000/11/25. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mansel RE, Fallowfield L, Kissin M, Goyal A, Newcombe RG, Dixon JM, et al. Randomized multicenter trial of sentinel node biopsy versus standard axillary treatment in operable breast cancer: the ALMANAC Trial. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98(9):599–609. (PubMed PMID: 16670385. Epub 2006/05/04. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Leidenius M, Leivonen M, Vironen J, von Smitten K. The consequences of long-time arm morbidity in node-negative breast cancer patients with sentinel node biopsy or axillary clearance. J Surg Oncol. 2005;92(1):23–31. (PubMed PMID: 16180231. Epub 2005/09/24. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Swenson KK, Nissen MJ, Ceronsky C, Swenson L, Lee MW, Tuttle TM. Comparison of side effects between sentinel lymph node and axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2002;9(8):745–53. (PubMed PMID: 12374657. Epub 2002/10/11. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tanis PJ, Nieweg OE, Valdes Olmos RA, Th Rutgers EJ, Kroon BB. History of sentinel node and validation of the technique. Breast Cancer Res BCR. 2001;3(2):109–12. (PubMed PMID: 11250756. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc139441. Epub 2001/03/16. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Morton DL, Wen DR, Wong JH, Economou JS, Cagle LA, Storm FK, et al. Technical details of intraoperative lymphatic mapping for early stage melanoma. Arch Surg (Chicago, Ill: 1960). 1992;127(4):392–9. (PubMed PMID: 1558490. Epub 1992/04/01. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Giuliano AE, Kirgan DM, Guenther JM, Morton DL. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymphadenectomy for breast cancer. Ann Surg. 1994;220(3):391–8. (discussion 8–401. PubMed PMID: 8092905. Pubmed Central PMCID: 1234400).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Fisher B, Wolmark N, Bauer M, Redmond C, Gebhardt M. The accuracy of clinical nodal staging and of limited axillary dissection as a determinant of histologic nodal status in carcinoma of the breast. Surg Gynecol Obstet. 1981;152(6):765–72. (PubMed PMID: 7244951. Epub 1981/06/01. eng).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Fisher B, Jeong JH, Anderson S, Bryant J, Fisher ER, Wolmark N. Twenty-five-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing radical mastectomy, total mastectomy, and total mastectomy followed by irradiation. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(8):567–75. (PubMed PMID: 12192016. Epub 2002/08/23. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Louis-Sylvestre C, Clough K, Asselain B, Vilcoq JR, Salmon RJ, Campana F, et al. Axillary treatment in conservative management of operable breast cancer: dissection or radiotherapy? Results of a randomized study with 15 years of follow-up. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22(1):97–101. (PubMed PMID: 14701770. Epub 2004/01/01. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krag DN, Anderson SJ, Julian TB, Brown AM, Harlow SP, Costantino JP, et al. Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010;11(10):927–33. (PubMed PMID: 20863759. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3041644. Epub 2010/09/25. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lyman GH, Giuliano AE, Somerfield MR, Benson AB 3rd, Bodurka DC, Burstein HJ, et al. American Society of Clinical Oncology guideline recommendations for sentinel lymph node biopsy in early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(30):7703–20. (PubMed PMID: 16157938. Epub 2005/09/15. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Galimberti V, Cole BF, Zurrida S, Viale G, Luini A, Veronesi P, et al. Axillary dissection versus no axillary dissection in patients with sentinel-node micrometastases (IBCSG 23-01): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(4):297–305. (PubMed PMID: 23491275. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3935346. Epub 2013/03/16. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Goldhirsch A, Wood WC, Coates AS, Gelber RD, Thurlimann B, Senn HJ. Strategies for subtypes–dealing with the diversity of breast cancer: highlights of the St. Gallen International Expert Consensus on the Primary Therapy of Early Breast Cancer 2011. Ann Oncol. 2011;22(8):1736–47. (PubMed PMID: 21709140. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3144634. Epub 2011/06/29. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Giuliano AE, McCall L, Beitsch P, Whitworth PW, Blumencranz P, Leitch AM, et al. Locoregional recurrence after sentinel lymph node dissection with or without axillary dissection in patients with sentinel lymph node metastases: the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2010;252(3):426–32. (discussion 32–3. PubMed PMID: 20739842. Epub 2010/08/27. eng).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Straver ME, Meijnen P, van Tienhoven G, van de Velde CJ, Mansel RE, Bogaerts J, et al. Role of axillary clearance after a tumor-positive sentinel node in the administration of adjuvant therapy in early breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(5):731–7. (PubMed PMID: 20038733. Pubmed Central PMCID: 2834391).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Savolt A, Musonda P, Matrai Z, Polgar C, Renyi-Vamos F, Rubovszky G, et al. Optimal treatment of the axilla after positive sentinel lymph node biopsy in early invasive breast cancer. Early results of the OTOASOR trial. Orvosi hetilap. 2013;154(49):1934–42. (PubMed PMID: 24292111. Epub 2013/12/03. Az axilla optimalis kezelese pozitiv orszemnyirokcsomo eseten korai invaziv emlorakban. Az OTOASOR vizsgalat elozetes eredmenyei. hun).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lyman GH, Temin S, Edge SB, Newman LA, Turner RR, Weaver DL, et al. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for patients with early-stage breast cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(13):1365–83. (PubMed PMID: 24663048. Epub 2014/03/26. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Gebruers N, Verbelen H, De Vrieze T, Coeck D, Tjalma W. The incidence and time path of lymphedema in sentinel negative breast cancer patients: a systematic review. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96:1131–1139. (PubMed PMID: 25637862. Epub 2015/02/01. Eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noguchi M. Z-11 trial and rethinking axillary reverse mapping. Breast Cancer. 2015;22(2):99–100. (PubMed PMID: 25577513. Epub 2015/01/13. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Suami H, Taylor GI, Pan WR. The lymphatic territories of the upper limb: anatomical study and clinical implications. Plastic Reconstr Surg. 2007;119(6):1813–22. (PubMed PMID: 17440362. Epub 2007/04/19. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hama Y, Koyama Y, Urano Y, Choyke PL, Kobayashi H. Simultaneous two-color spectral fluorescence lymphangiography with near infrared quantum dots to map two lymphatic flows from the breast and the upper extremity. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2007;103(1):23–8. (PubMed PMID: 17028977. Epub 2006/10/10. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thompson M, Korourian S, Henry-Tillman R, Adkins L, Mumford S, Westbrook KC, et al. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM): a new concept to identify and enhance lymphatic preservation. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(6):1890–5. (PubMed PMID: 17479341. Epub 2007/05/05. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Boneti C, Korourian S, Diaz Z, Santiago C, Mumford S, Adkins L, et al. Scientific Impact Award: axillary reverse mapping (ARM) to identify and protect lymphatics draining the arm during axillary lymphadenectomy. Am J Surg. 2009;198(4):482–7. (PubMed PMID: 19800452. Epub 2009/10/06. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Nos C, Lesieur B, Clough KB, Lecuru F. Blue dye injection in the arm in order to conserve the lymphatic drainage of the arm in breast cancer patients requiring an axillary dissection. Ann Surg Oncol. 2007;14(9):2490–6. (PubMed PMID: 17549570. Epub 2007/06/06. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Boneti C, Korourian S, Bland K, Cox K, Adkins LL, Henry-Tillman RS, et al. Axillary reverse mapping: mapping and preserving arm lymphatics may be important in preventing lymphedema during sentinel lymph node biopsy. J Am Coll Surg. 2008;206(5):1038–42. (discussion 42–4. PubMed PMID: 18471751. Epub 2008/05/13. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Casabona F, Bogliolo S, Valenzano Menada M, Sala P, Villa G, Ferrero S. Feasibility of axillary reverse mapping during sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16(9):2459–63. (PubMed PMID: 19506954. Epub 2009/06/10. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Han JW, Seo YJ, Choi JE, Kang SH, Bae YK, Lee SJ. The efficacy of arm node preserving surgery using axillary reverse mapping for preventing lymphedema in patients with breast cancer. J Breast Cancer. 2012;15(1):91–7. (PubMed PMID: 22493634. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3318181. Epub 2012/04/12. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Beek MA, Gobardhan PD, Klompenhouwer EG, Rutten HJ, Voogd AC, Luiten EJ. Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) in clinically node positive breast cancer patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2015;41(1):59–63. (PubMed PMID: 25468747. Epub 2014/12/04. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Deng H, Chen L, Jia W, Chen K, Zeng Y, Rao N, et al. Safety study of axillary reverse mapping in the surgical treatment for breast cancer patients. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2011;137(12):1869–74. (PubMed PMID: 21935615. Epub 2011/09/22. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Bedrosian I, Babiera GV, Mittendorf EA, Kuerer HM, Pantoja L, Hunt KK, et al. A phase I study to assess the feasibility and oncologic safety of axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients. Cancer. 2010;116(11):2543–8. (PubMed PMID: 20336790. Epub 2010/03/26. eng).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ochoa D, Korourian S, Boneti C, Adkins L, Badgwell B, Klimberg VS. Axillary reverse mapping: five-year experience. Surgery. 2014;156(5):1261–8. (PubMed PMID: 25444319. Epub 2014/12/03. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boccardo F, Casabona F, De Cian F, Friedman D, Villa G, Bogliolo S, et al. Lymphedema microsurgical preventive healing approach: a new technique for primary prevention of arm lymphedema after mastectomy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009;16(3):703–8. (PubMed PMID: 19139964. Epub 2009/01/14. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Ponzone R, Cont NT, Maggiorotto F, Cassina E, Mininanni P, Biglia N, et al. Extensive nodal disease may impair axillary reverse mapping in patients with breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2009;27(33):5547–51. (PubMed PMID: 19826123. Epub 2009/10/15. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gobardhan PD, Wijsman JH, van Dalen T, Klompenhouwer EG, van der Schelling GP, Los J, et al. ARM: axillary reverse mapping—the need for selection of patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2012;38(8):657–61. (PubMed PMID: 22607749. Epub 2012/05/23. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schunemann E Jr, Doria MT, Silvestre JB, Gasperin P Jr, Cavalcanti TC, Budel VM. Prospective study evaluating oncological safety of axillary reverse mapping. Ann Surg Oncol. 2014;21(7):2197–202. (PubMed PMID: 24599413. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc4047480. Epub 2014/03/07. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Tausch C, Baege A, Dietrich D, Vergin I, Heuer H, Heusler RH, et al. Can axillary reverse mapping avoid lymphedema in node positive breast cancer patients? Eur J Surg Oncol. 2013;39(8):880–6. (PubMed PMID: 23735162. Epub 2013/06/06. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Britton TB, Solanki CK, Pinder SE, Mortimer PS, Peters AM, Purushotham AD. Lymphatic drainage pathways of the breast and the upper limb. Nucl Med Commun. 2009;30(6):427–30. (PubMed PMID: 19319006. Epub 2009/03/26. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gennaro M, Maccauro M, Sigari C, Casalini P, Bedodi L, Conti AR, et al. Selective axillary dissection after axillary reverse mapping to prevent breast-cancer-related lymphoedema. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2013;39(12):1341–5. (PubMed PMID: 24113621. Epub 2013/10/12. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yue T, Zhuang D, Zhou P, Zheng L, Fan Z, Zhu J, et al. A prospective study to assess the feasibility of axillary reverse mapping and evaluate its effect on preventing lymphedema in breast cancer patients. Clin Breast Cancer. 2015;15(4):301–6. (PubMed PMID: 25776198. Epub 2015/03/18. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nos C, Kaufmann G, Clough KB, Collignon MA, Zerbib E, Cusumano P, et al. Combined axillary reverse mapping (ARM) technique for breast cancer patients requiring axillary dissection. Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15(9):2550–5. (PubMed PMID: 18618185. Epub 2008/07/12. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Noguchi M, Inokuchi M, Zen Y. Complement of peritumoral and subareolar injection in breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsy. J Surg Oncol. 2009;100(2):100–5. (PubMed PMID: 19479943. Epub 2009/05/30. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sakurai T, Endo M, Shimizu K, Yoshimizu N, Nakajima K, Nosaka K, et al. Axillary reverse mapping using fluorescence imaging is useful for identifying the risk group of postoperative lymphedema in breast cancer patients undergoing sentinel node biopsies. J Surg Oncol. 2014;109(6):612–5. (PubMed PMID: 24310418. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc4263257. Epub 2013/12/07. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Noguchi M, Noguchi M, Nakano Y, Ohno Y, Kosaka T. Axillary reverse mapping using a fluorescence imaging system in breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2012;105(3):229–34. (PubMed PMID: 21913193. Epub 2011/09/14. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ikeda K, Ogawa Y, Kajino C, Deguchi S, Kurihara S, Tashima T, et al. The influence of axillary reverse mapping related factors on lymphedema in breast cancer patients. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2014;40(7):818–23. (PubMed PMID: 24768416. Epub 2014/04/29. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Noguchi M, Yokoi M, Nakano Y. Axillary reverse mapping with indocyanine fluorescence imaging in patients with breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2010;101(3):217–21. (PubMed PMID: 20063370. Epub 2010/01/12. eng).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ikeda K, Ogawa Y, Komatsu H, Mori Y, Ishikawa A, Nakajima T, et al. Evaluation of the metastatic status of lymph nodes identified using axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer patients. World J Surg Oncol. 2012;10:233. (PubMed PMID: 23116152. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3527301. Epub 2012/11/03. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ponzone R, Mininanni P, Cassina E, Sismondi P. Axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer: can we spare what we find? Ann Surg Oncol. 2008;15(1):390–1. (author reply 2–3. PubMed PMID: 17990039. Epub 2007/11/09. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kuusk U, Seyednejad N, McKevitt EC, Dingee CK, Wiseman SM. Axillary reverse mapping in breast cancer: a Canadian experience. J Surg Oncol. 2014;110(7):791–5. (PubMed PMID: 25053441. Epub 2014/07/24. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rubio IT, Cebrecos I, Peg V, Esgueva A, Mendoza C, Cortadellas T, et al. Extensive nodal involvement increases the positivity of blue nodes in the axillary reverse mapping procedure in patients with breast cancer. J Surg Oncol. 2012;106(1):89–93. (PubMed PMID: 22258666. Epub 2012/01/20. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Yue T, Zhuang D, Zhou P, Zheng L, Fan Z, Zhu J, et al. A prospective study to assess the feasibility of axillary reverse mapping and evaluate its effect on preventing lymphedema in breast cancer patients. Clin Breast Cancer. 2015;15:301–6. (PubMed PMID: 25776198. Epub 2015/03/18. Eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Klompenhouwer EG, Gobardhan PD, Beek MA, Voogd AC, Luiten EJ. The clinical relevance of axillary reverse mapping (ARM): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2013;14:111. (PubMed PMID: 23782712. Pubmed Central PMCID: PMC3663653. Epub 2013/06/21. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Pavlista D, Eliska O. Relationship between the lymphatic drainage of the breast and the upper extremity: a postmortem study. Ann Surg Oncol. 2012;19(11):3410–5. (PubMed PMID: 22526910. Epub 2012/04/25. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pavlista D, Eliska O. Analysis of direct oil contrast lymphography of upper limb lymphatics traversing the axilla—a lesson from the past—contribution to the concept of axillary reverse mapping. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2012;38(5):390–4. (PubMed PMID: 22336143. Epub 2012/02/18. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pavlista D, Koliba P, Eliska O. Axillary reverse mapping—chance to prevent lymphedema in breast cancer patients. Ceska gynekologie/Ceska lekarska spolecnost. J Ev Purkyne. 2011;76(5):355–9. (PubMed PMID: 22132635. Epub 2011/12/03. Reverzni mapovani lymfatik v axile jako moznost prevence lymfedemu u pacientek s karcinomem prsu. cze).Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Suami H, O’Neill JK, Pan WR, Taylor GI. Superficial lymphatic system of the upper torso: preliminary radiographic results in human cadavers. Plastic Reconstr Surg. 2008;121(4):1231–9. (PubMed PMID: 18349641. Epub 2008/03/20. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Senofsky GM, Moffat FL Jr, Davis K, Masri MM, Clark KC, Robinson DS, et al. Total axillary lymphadenectomy in the management of breast cancer. Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill: 1960). 1991;126(11):1336–41. (discussion 41–2. PubMed PMID: 1747046. Epub 1991/11/11. eng).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mihara M, Hayashi Y, Hara H, Todokoro T, Koshima I, Murai N. Lymphatic-venous anastomosis for the radical cure of a large pelvic lymphocyst. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2012;19(1):125–7. (PubMed PMID: 22196262. Epub 2011/12/27. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Campisi C, Bellini C, Campisi C, Accogli S, Bonioli E, Boccardo F. Microsurgery for lymphedema: clinical research and long-term results. Microsurgery. 2010;30(4):256–60. (PubMed PMID: 20235160. Epub 2010/03/18. eng).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Campisi C, Boccardo F. Microsurgical techniques for lymphedema treatment: derivative lymphatic-venous microsurgery. World J Surg. 2004;28(6):609–13. (PubMed PMID: 15366754. Epub 2004/09/16. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Damstra RJ, Voesten HG, van Schelven WD, van der Lei B. Lymphatic venous anastomosis (LVA) for treatment of secondary arm lymphedema. A prospective study of 11 LVA procedures in 10 patients with breast cancer related lymphedema and a critical review of the literature. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;113(2):199–206. (PubMed PMID: 18270813. Epub 2008/02/14. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Noguchi M. Axillary reverse mapping for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;119(3):529–35. (PubMed PMID: 19842033. Epub 2009/10/21. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    DiSipio T, Rye S, Newman B, Hayes S. Incidence of unilateral arm lymphoedema after breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Oncol. 2013;14(6):500–15. (PubMed PMID: 23540561. Epub 2013/04/02. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Jammallo LS, Miller CL, Singer M, Horick NK, Skolny MN, Specht MC, et al. Impact of body mass index and weight fluctuation on lymphedema risk in patients treated for breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013;142(1):59–67. (PubMed PMID: 24122390. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3873728. Epub 2013/10/15. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Ugur S, Arici C, Yaprak M, Mesci A, Arici GA, Dolay K, et al. Risk factors of breast cancer-related lymphedema. Lymph Res Biol. 2013;11(2):72–5. (PubMed PMID: 23772716. Pubmed Central PMCID: Pmc3685313. Epub 2013/06/19. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Pasko JL, Garreau J, Carl A, Ansteth M, Glissmeyer M, Johnson N. Axillary reverse lymphatic mapping reduces patient perceived incidence of lymphedema after axillary dissection in breast cancer. Am J Surg. 2015;209(5):890–5. (PubMed PMID: 25796096. Epub 2015/03/23. eng).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japanese Breast Cancer Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgical OncologySecond Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang UniversityHangzhouChina
  2. 2.Institute of Translational MedicineZhejiang University School of MedicineHangzhouChina

Personalised recommendations