Toll-like receptor 4 and breast cancer: an updated systematic review

  • Morteza Khademalhosseini
  • Mohammad Kazemi ArababadiEmail author
Review Article


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play dual roles in human cancers. TLR4 is a key molecule which may participate in both friend and foe roles against breast cancer. This review article collected recent data regarding the mechanisms used by TLR4 in the eradication of breast cancer cells and induction of the tumor cells, and discussed the mechanisms involved in the various functions of TLR4. The literature searches revealed that TLR4 is a key molecule that participates in breast cancer cell eradication or induction of breast cancer development and also transformation of the normal cells. TLR4 eradicates breast cancer cells via recognition of their DAMPs and then induces immune responses. Over-expression of TLR4 and also alterations in its signaling, including association of some intrinsic pathways such as TGF-β signaling and TP53, are the crucial factors to alter TLR4 functions against breast cancer.


Breast cancer TLR4 Metastasis 



This study was funded by Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Breast Cancer Society 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morteza Khademalhosseini
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammad Kazemi Arababadi
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Geriatric Care Research CenterRafsanjan University of Medical SciencesRafsanjanIran
  2. 2.Department of Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of ParamedicineRafsanjan University of Medical SciencesRafsanjanIran
  3. 3.Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Research Institute of Basic Medical SciencesRafsanjan University of Medical SciencesRafsanjanIran

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