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Update of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis in Pregnant and Non-pregnant Patients

  • Tito Ramírez-Lozada
  • Víctor Manuel Espinosa-Hernández
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
  • Erick Martínez-HerreraEmail author
Fungal Infections of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue (A Bonifaz and M Pereira, Section Editors)
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Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Fungal Infections of Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue

Abstract

Purpose of the Review

Candida albicans vulvovaginitis is one of the most frequent symptomatic infections in women and its incidence increases in reproductive age and pregnancy. Currently there are more specific and sensitive tests to identify Candida species that are resistant to antifungal agents, such as PCR and MALDI TOF MS, in order to improve prognosis.

Recent Findings

The genus Candida is part of the microbiota in humans; however, many species can become pathogenic. Vulvovaginitis caused by non-albicans Candida are becoming very important due to their high levels of antifungal resistance, which makes treatment difficult. Therefore, in addition to using phenotypic, biochemical tests, molecular analyses should be used to improve diagnosis and give appropriate treatment.

Summary

Both in childhood and in reproductive age, women are exposed to several episodes of vulvovaginitis, mainly due to bacteria and fungi, due to various risk factors. Among the fungi, the most common agent is Candida albicans and within the non-albicans is Candida glabrata, but there are other species related to greater resistance and recurrence.

Keywords

Vulvovaginal candidiasis Candida albicans Non-albicans Candida species Candida glabrata Antifungal drugs 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank ShifText for editorial assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of Interest

Tito Ramírez-Lozada, Victor Manuel Espinosa-Hernandez, María Guadalupe Frías-De-León, and Erick Martinez-Herrera declare no conflicts of interest relevant to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tito Ramírez-Lozada
    • 1
  • Víctor Manuel Espinosa-Hernández
    • 2
    • 3
  • María Guadalupe Frías-De-León
    • 2
  • Erick Martínez-Herrera
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Unidad de Ginecología y ObstetriciaHospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de IxtapalucaIxtapalucaMéxico
  2. 2.Unidad de InvestigaciónHospital Regional de Alta Especialidad de IxtapalucaIxtapalucaMéxico
  3. 3.Maestría en Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela Superior de MedicinaInstituto Politécnico NacionalAlcaldía Miguel HidalgoMexico

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