Single Pt atom decorated graphitic carbon nitride as an efficient photocatalyst for the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene into aniline

  • Tianwei He
  • Chunmei Zhang
  • Lei Zhang
  • Aijun DuEmail author
Research Article


The hydrogenation of nitrobenzene into aniline is one of industrially important reactions, but still remains great challenge due to the lack of highly active, chemo-selective and eco-friendly catalyst. By using extensive density functional theory (DFT) calculations, herein we predict that single Pt atom decorated g-C3N4 (Pt@g-C3N4) exhibits excellent catalytic activity and selectivity for the conversion of nitrobenzene into aniline under visible light. The overall activation energy barrier for the hydrogenation of nitrobenzene on single atom Pt@g-C3N4 catalyst is even lower than that of the bare Pt(111) surface. The dissociation of N–O bonds on single Pt atom is triggered by single hydrogen atom rather than double hydrogen atoms on the Pt(111) surface. Moreover, the Pt@g-C3N4 catalyst exhibits outstanding chemoselectivity towards the common reducible substituents, such as phenyl,–C=C,–C≡C and–CHO groups during the hydrogenation. In addition, the doped single Pt atom can significantly enhance the photoconversion efficiency by broadening the light absorption of the pristine g-C3N4 to visible light region. Our results highlight an interesting and experimentally synthesized single-atom photocatalyst (Pt@g-C3N4) for efficient hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline under a sustainable and green approach.


chemoselective hydrogenation single-atom catalyst photocatalyst nitrobenzene 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



We acknowledge generous grants of high-performance computing resources provided by NCI National Facility and The Pawsey Supercomputing Centre through the National Computational Merit Allocation Scheme supported by the Australian Government and the Government of Western Australia. A. D. also greatly appreciates the financial support of the Australian Research Council under Discovery Project (No. DP170103598).

Supplementary material

12274_2019_2439_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (1.4 mb)
Supplementary material, approximately 228 KB.


  1. [1]
    Zhao, M. T.; Yuan, K.; Wang, Y.; Li, G. D.; Guo, J.; Gu, L.; Hu, W. P.; Zhao, H. J.; Tang, Z. Y. Metal–organic frameworks as selectivity regulators for hydrogenation reactions. Nature, 2016, 539, 76–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Zhang, S.; Chang, C. R.; Huang, Z. Q.; Li, J.; Wu, Z. M.; Ma, Y. Y.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Wang, Y.; Qu, Y. Q. High catalytic activity and chemoselectivity of sub-nanometric Pd clusters on porous nanorods of CeO2 for hydrogenation of nitroarenes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 2629–2637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    Beier, M. J.; Andanson, J. M.; Baiker, A. Tuning the chemoselective hydrogenation of nitrostyrenes catalyzed by ionic liquid-supported platinum nanoparticles. ACS Catal. 2012, 2, 2587–2595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    Marquez, J.; Pletcher, D. A study of the electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene to p-aminophenol. J. Appl. Electrochem. 1980, 10, 567–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    Corma, A.; Concepción, P.; Serna, P. A different reaction pathway for the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds on gold catalysts. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 7266–7269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    Joshi, R.; Chudasama, U. Hydrogenation and oxidation reactions involving ruthenium supported catalysts. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2010, 49, 2543–2547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Deshmukh, A. A.; Prashar, A. K.; Kinage, A. K.; Kumar, R.; Meijboom, R. Ru(II) phenanthroline complex as catalyst for chemoselective hydrogenation of nitro-aryls in a green process. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2010, 49, 12180–12184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    Noyori, R. Synthesizing our future. Nat. Chem. 2009, 1, 5–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    Corma, A.; Serna, P. Chemoselective hydrogenation of nitro compounds with supported gold catalysts. Science 2006, 313, 332–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    Wienhöfer, G.; Sorribes, I.; Boddien, A.; Westerhaus, F.; Junge, K.; Junge, H.; Llusar, R.; Beller, M. General and selective iron-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes without base. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2011, 133, 12875–12879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    He, D. P.; Shi, H.; Wu, Y.; Xu, B. Q. Synthesis of chloroanilines: Selective hydrogenation of the nitro in chloronitrobenzenes over zirconia-supported gold catalyst. Green Chem. 2007, 9, 849–851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    He, L.; Wang, L. C.; Sun, H.; Ni, J.; Cao, Y.; He, H. Y.; Fan, K. N. Efficient and selective room-temperature gold-catalyzed reduction of nitro compounds with CO and H2O as the hydrogen source. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2009, 48, 9538–9541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Serna, P.; Concepción, P.; Corma, A. Design of highly active and chemoselective bimetallic gold–platinum hydrogenation catalysts through kinetic and isotopic studies. J. Catal. 2009, 265, 19–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    Shen, K.; Chen, L.; Long, J. L; Zhong, W.; Li, Y. W. MOFs-templated Co@Pd core–shell nps embedded in N-doped carbon matrix with superior hydrogenation activities. ACS Catal. 2015, 5, 5264–5271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Ren, Y. J.; Wei, H. S.; Yin, G. Z.; Zhang, L. L.; Wang, A. Q.; Zhang, T. Oxygen surface groups of activated carbon steer the chemoselective hydrogenation of substituted nitroarenes over nickel nanoparticles. Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 1969–1972.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    Liu, L. C.; Gao, F.; Concepción, P.; Corma, A. A new strategy to transform mono and bimetallic non-noble metal nanoparticles into highly active and chemoselective hydrogenation catalysts. J. Catal. 2017, 350, 218–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    Zhang, J. W.; Lu, G. P.; Cai, C. Chemoselective transfer hydrogenation of nitroarenes by highly dispersed Ni-Co BMNPs. Catal. Commun. 2016, 84, 25–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    Daems, N.; Wouters, J.; Van Goethem, C.; Baert, K.; Poleunis, C.; Delcorte, A.; Hubin, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.; Pescarmona, P. P. Selective reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline over electrocatalysts based on nitrogen-doped carbons containing non-noble metals. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2018, 226, 509–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    Sheng, X.; Wouters, B.; Breugelmans, T.; Hubin, A.; Vankelecom, I. F. J.; Pescarmona, P. P. Cu/CuxO and Pt nanoparticles supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes as electrocatalysts for the reduction of nitrobenzene. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2014, 147, 330–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    Nguyen, T. B.; Huang, C. P.; Doong, R. A. Enhanced catalytic reduction of nitrophenols by sodium borohydride over highly recyclable Au@graphitic carbon nitride nanocomposites. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2019, 240, 337–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    Raja, R.; Golovko, V. B.; Thomas, J. M.; Berenguer-Murcia, A.; Zhou, W. Z.; Xie, S. H.; Johnson, B. F. G. Highly efficient catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitro-substituted aromatics. Chem. Commun. 2005, 2026–2028.Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    Blaser, H. U.; Steiner, H.; Studer, M. Selective catalytic hydrogenation of functionalized nitroarenes: An update. ChemCatChem 2009, 1, 210–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    Corma, A.; González-Arellano, C.; Iglesias, M.; Sánchez, F. Gold complexes as catalysts: Chemoselective hydrogenation of nitroarenes. Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 2009, 356, 99–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    Corma, A.; Serna, P.; Concepción, P.; Calvino, J. J. Transforming nonselective into chemoselective metal catalysts for the hydrogenation of substituted nitroaromatics. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 8748–8753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Siegrist, U.; Baumeister, P.; Blaser, H. U.; Studer, M. The selective hydrogenation of functionalized nitroarenes: New catalytic systems. Chem. Ind. 1998, 75, 207–220.Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    Westerhaus, F. A.; Jagadeesh, R. V.; Wienhöfer, G.; Pohl, M. M.; Radnik, J.; Surkus, A. E.; Rabeah, J.; Junge, K.; Junge, H.; Nielsen, M. et al. Heterogenized cobalt oxide catalysts for nitroarene reduction by pyrolysis of molecularly defined complexes. Nat. Chem. 2013, 5, 537–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Jagadeesh, R. V.; Surkus, A. E.; Junge, H.; Pohl, M. M.; Radnik, J.; Rabeah, J.; Huan, H. M; Schünemann, V.; Brückner, A.; Beller, M. Nanoscale Fe2O3-based catalysts for selective hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines. Science 2013, 342, 1073–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    Zhu, H. Y.; Ke, X. B.; Yang, X. Z.; Sarina, S.; Liu, H. W. Reduction of nitroaromatic compounds on supported gold nanoparticles by visible and ultraviolet light. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2010, 49, 9657–9661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    Naya, S. I.; Inoue, A.; Tada, H. Self-assembled heterosupramolecular visible light photocatalyst consisting of gold nanoparticle-loaded titanium(IV) dioxide and surfactant. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 6292–6293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Li, H.; Qin, F.; Yang, Z. P.; Cui, X. M.; Wang, J. F.; Zhang, L. Z. New reaction pathway induced by plasmon for selective benzyl alcohol oxidation on biocl possessing oxygen vacancies. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 3513–3521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    Xiao, Q.; Liu, Z.; Wang, F.; Sarina, S.; Zhu, H. Y. Tuning the reduction power of visible-light photocatalysts of gold nanoparticles for selective reduction of nitroaromatics to azoxy-compounds—Tailoring the catalyst support. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2017, 209, 69–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    Yang, Z. W.; Xu, X. Q.; Liang, X. X.; Lei, C.; Cui, Y. H.; Wu, W. H.; Yang, Y. X.; Zhang, Z.; Lei, Z. Q. Construction of heterostructured MIL-125/Ag/g-C3N4 nanocomposite as an efficient bifunctional visible light photocatalyst for the organic oxidation and reduction reactions. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2017, 205, 42–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    Dai, X.; Xie, M. L.; Meng, S. G.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, S. F. Coupled systems for selective oxidation of aromatic alcohols to aldehydes and reduction of nitrobenzene into aniline using CdS/g-C3N4 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2014, 158-159, 382–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Hoffmann, M. R.; Martin, S. T.; Choi, W.; Bahnemann, D. W. Environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis. Chem. Rev. 1995, 95, 69–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    Tew, M. W.; Janousch, M.; Huthwelker, T.; Van Bokhoven, J. A. The roles of carbide and hydride in oxide-supported palladium nanoparticles for alkyne hydrogenation. J. Catal. 2011, 283, 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    García-Mota, M.; Bridier, B.; Pérez-Ramírez, J.; López, N. Interplay between carbon monoxide, hydrides, and carbides in selective alkyne hydrogenation on palladium. J. Catal. 2010, 273, 92–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    Zhao, F. Y.; Ikushima, Y.; Arai, M. Hydrogenation of nitrobenzene with supported platinum catalysts in supercritical carbon dioxide: Effects of pressure, solvent, and metal particle size. J. Catal. 2004, 224, 479–483.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Mondal, B.; Mukherjee, P. S. Cage encapsulated gold nanoparticles as heterogeneous photocatalyst for facile and selective reduction of nitroarenes to azo compounds. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 12592–12601.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Yang, X. F.; Wang, A. Q.; Qiao, B. T.; Li, J.; Liu, J. Y.; Zhang, T. Single-atom catalysts: A new frontier in heterogeneous catalysis. Acc. Chem. Res. 2013, 46, 1740–1748.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    Qiao, B. T.; Wang, A. Q.; Yang, X. F.; Allard, L. F.; Jiang, Z.; Cui, Y. T.; Liu, J. Y.; Li, J.; Zhang, T. Single-atom catalysis of CO oxidation using Pt1/FeOx. Nat. Chem. 2011, 3, 634–641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    Jia, Y.; Zhang, L. Z.; Gao, G. P.; Chen, H.; Wang, B.; Zhou, J. Z.; Soo, M. T.; Hong, M.; Yan, X. C.; Qian, G. R. et al. A heterostructure coupling of exfoliated Ni–Fe hydroxide nanosheet and defective graphene as a bifunctional electrocatalyst for overall water splitting. Adv. Mater. 2017, 29, 1700017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Ling, C. Y.; Shi, L.; Ouyang, Y. X.; Zeng, X. C.; Wang, J. L. Nanosheet supported single-metal atom bifunctional catalyst for overall water splitting. Nano Lett. 2017, 17, 5133–5139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    He, T. W.; Zhang, C. M.; Du, A. J. Single-atom supported on graphene grain boundary as an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction. Chem. Eng. Sci. 2019, 194, 58–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    He, T. W.; Matta, S. K.; Will, G.; Du, A. J. Transition-metal single atoms anchored on graphdiyne as high-efficiency electrocatalysts for water splitting and oxygen reduction. Small Methods 2019, in press, Scholar
  45. [45]
    Fei, H. L.; Dong, J. C.; Feng, Y. X.; Allen, C. S.; Wan, C. Z.; Volosskiy, B.; Li, M. F.; Zhao, Z. P.; Wang, Y. L.; Sun, H. T. et al. General synthesis and definitive structural identification of MN4C4 single-atom catalysts with tunable electrocatalytic activities. Nat. Catal. 2018, 1, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    He, T. W.; Zhang, C. M.; Will, G.; Du, A. J. Cobalt porphyrin supported on graphene/Ni (111) surface: Enhanced oxygen evolution/reduction reaction and the role of electron coupling. Catal. Today 2018, in press, Scholar
  47. [47]
    Lin, Z. Z. Graphdiyne-supported single-atom Sc and Ti catalysts for highefficient CO oxidation. Carbon 2016, 108, 343–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Back, S.; Lim, J.; Kim, N. Y.; Kim, Y. H.; Jung, Y. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements. Chem. Sci. 2017, 8, 1090–1096.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Yandulov, D. V.; Schrock, R. R. Catalytic reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia at a single molybdenum center. Science 2003, 301, 76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    He, T. W.; Matta, S. K.; Du, A. J. Single tungsten atom supported on N-doped graphyne as a high-performance electrocatalyst for nitrogen fixation under ambient conditions. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2019, 21, 1546–1551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Wei, H. S.; Liu, X. Y.; Wang, A. Q.; Zhang, L. L.; Qiao, B. T.; Yang, X. F.; Huang, Y. Q.; Miao, S.; Liu, J. Y.; Zhang, T. FeOx-supported platinum single-atom and pseudo-single-atom catalysts for chemoselective hydrogenation of functionalized nitroarenes. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 5634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Huang, F.; Deng, Y. C.; Chen, Y. L.; Cai, X. B.; Peng, M.; Jia, Z. M.; Ren, P. J.; Xiao, D. Q.; Wen, X. D.; Wang, N. et al. Atomically dispersed Pd on nanodiamond/graphene hybrid for selective hydrogenation of acetylene. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 13142–13146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    Liu, J.; Liu, Y.; Liu, N. Y.; Han, Y. Z.; Zhang, X.; Huang, H.; Lifshitz, Y.; Lee, S. T.; Zhong, J.; Kang, Z. H. Metal-free efficient photocatalyst for stable visible water splitting via a two-electron pathway. Science 2015, 347, 970–974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    Zheng, Y.; Jiao, Y.; Zhu, Y. H.; Li, L. H.; Han, Y.; Chen, Y.; Du, A. J.; Jaroniec, M.; Qiao, S. Z. Hydrogen evolution by a metal-free electrocatalyst. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 3783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    Gao, G. P.; Jiao, Y.; Waclawik, E. R.; Du, A. J. Single atom (Pd/Pt) supported on graphitic carbon nitride as an efficient photocatalyst for visible-light reduction of carbon dioxide. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 6292–6297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    Li, X. G.; Bi, W. T.; Zhang, L.; Tao, S.; Chu, W. S.; Zhang, Q.; Luo, Y.; Wu, C. Z.; Xie, Y. Single-atom Pt as Co-catalyst for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution. Adv. Mater. 2016, 28, 2427–2431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Chen, G. X.; Xu, C. F.; Huang, X. Q.; Ye, J. Y.; Gu, L.; Li, G.; Tang, Z. C.; Wu, B. H.; Yang, H. Y.; Zhao, Z. P. et al. Interfacial electronic effects control the reaction selectivity of platinum catalysts. Nat. Mater. 2016, 15, 564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    Gong, L.; Mu, Y.; Janik, M. J. Mechanistic roles of catalyst surface coating in nitrobenzene selective reduction: A first-principles study. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2018, 236, 509–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Sheng, T.; Qi, Y. J.; Lin, X.; Hu, P.; Sun, S. G.; Lin, W. F. Insights into the mechanism of nitrobenzene reduction to aniline over Pt catalyst and the significance of the adsorption of phenyl group on kinetics. Chem. Eng. J. 2016, 293, 337–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    Kresse, G.; Joubert, D. From ultrasoft pseudopotentials to the projector augmented-wave method. Phys. Rev. B 1999, 59, 1758–1775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Kresse, G.; Furthmüller, J. Efficient iterative schemes for ab initio total-energy calculations using a plane-wave basis set. Phys. Rev. B 1996, 54, 11169–11186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    Perdew, J. P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M. Generalized gradient approximation made simple. Phys. Rev. Lett. 1996, 77, 3865–3868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Henkelman, G.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Jónsson, H. A climbing image nudged elastic band method for finding saddle points and minimum energy paths. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 9901–9904.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    Henkelman, G.; Jónsson, H. Improved tangent estimate in the nudged elastic band method for finding minimum energy paths and saddle points. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 113, 9978–9985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    Vilé, G.; Albani, D.; Nachtegaal, M.; Chen, Z. P.; Dontsova, D.; Antonietti, M.; López, N.; Pérez-Ramírez, J. A stable single-site palladium catalyst for hydrogenations. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 11265–11269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. [66]
    Boronat, M.; Concepción, P.; Corma, A.; González, S.; Illas, F.; Serna, P. A molecular mechanism for the chemoselective hydrogenation of substituted nitroaromatics with nanoparticles of gold on TiO2 catalysts: A cooperative effect between gold and the support. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 16230–16237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. [67]
    Saeys, M.; Reyniers, M. F.; Marin, G. B.; Neurock, M. Density functional study of benzene adsorption on Pt (111). J. Phys. Chem. B 2002, 106, 7489–7498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. [68]
    Saeys, M.; Reyniers, M. F.; Neurock, M.; Marin, G.; Marin G. B. Ab initio reaction path analysis of benzene hydrogenation to cyclohexane on Pt (111). J. Phys. Chem. B 2005, 109, 2064–2073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. [69]
    He, T. W.; Gao, G. P.; Kou, L. Z.; Will, G.; Du, A. J. Endohedral metallofullerenes (M@C60) as efficient catalysts for highly active hydrogen evolution reaction. J. Catal. 2017, 354, 231–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. [70]
    Wang, H. T.; Xu, S. C.; Tsai, C.; Li, Y. Z.; Liu, C.; Zhao, J.; Liu, Y. Y.; Yuan, H. Y.; Abild-Pedersen, F.; Prinz, F. B. et al. Direct and continuous strain control of catalysts with tunable battery electrode materials. Science 2016, 354, 1031–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    Mahata, A.; Rai, R. K.; Choudhuri, I.; Singh, S. K.; Pathak, B. Direct vs. Indirect pathway for nitrobenzene reduction reaction on a Ni catalyst surface: A density functional study. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 16, 26365–26374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    Millán, R.; Liu, L. C.; Boronat, M.; Corma, A. A new molecular pathway allows the chemoselective reduction of nitroaromatics on non-noble metal catalysts. J. Catal. 2018, 364, 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    Xia, L. X.; Li, D.; Long, J.; Huang, F.; Yang, L. N.; Guo, Y. S.; Jia, Z. M.; Xiao, J. P.; Liu, H. Y. N-doped graphene confined Pt nanoparticles for efficient semi-hydrogenation of phenylacetylene. Carbon 2019, 145, 47–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    Tafesh, A. M.; Weiguny, J. A review of the selective catalytic reduction of aromatic nitro compounds into aromatic amines, isocyanates, carbamates, and ureas using CO. Chem. Rev. 1996, 96, 2035–2052.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    Liao, G. Z.; Chen, S.; Quan, X.; Yu, H. T.; Zhao, H. M. Graphene oxide modified g-C3N4 hybrid with enhanced photocatalytic capability under visible light irradiation. J. Mater. Chem. 2012, 22, 2721–2726.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    Liu, S. Z.; Ke, J.; Sun, H. Q.; Liu, J.; Tade, M. O.; Wang, S. B. Size dependence of uniformed carbon spheres in promoting graphitic carbon nitride toward enhanced photocatalysis. Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 2017, 204, 358–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. [77]
    Zhang, X. D.; Xie, X.; Wang, H.; Zhang, J. J.; Pan, B. C.; Xie, Y. Enhanced photoresponsive ultrathin graphitic-phase C3N4 nanosheets for bioimaging. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 135, 18–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tianwei He
    • 1
  • Chunmei Zhang
    • 1
  • Lei Zhang
    • 1
  • Aijun Du
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Science and Engineering FacultyQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations