In situ carbon nanotube clusters grown from three-dimensional porous graphene networks as efficient sulfur hosts for high-rate ultra-stable Li–S batteries
- 472 Downloads
Carbon nanotube (CNT) clusters grown in situ in three-dimensional (3D) porous graphene networks (3DG-CNTs), with integrated structure and remarkable electronic conductivity, are desirable S host materials for Li–S batteries. 3DG-CNT exhibits a high surface area (1,645 m2·g−1), superior electronic conductivity of 1,055 S·m−1, and a 3D porous networked structure. Large clusters of CNTs anchored on the inner walls of 3D graphene networks act as capillaries, benefitting restriction of agglomeration by high contents of immersed S. Moreover, the capillary-like CNT clusters grown in situ in the pores efficiently form restricted spaces for Li polysulfides, significantly reducing the shuttling effect and promoting S utilization throughout the charge/discharge process. With an areal S mass loading of 81.6 wt.%, the 3DG-CNT/S electrode exhibits an initial specific capacity reaching 1,229 mA·h·g−1 at 0.5 C and capacity decays of 0.044% and 0.059% per cycle at 0.5 and 1 C, respectively, over 500 cycles. The electrode material also reveals a remarkable rate performance and the large capacity of 812 mA·h·g−1 at 3 C.
Keywordsin situ growth carbon nanotube three-dimensional (3D) graphene porous network Li–S battery
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
This work was supported by the Innovation Project of Guangxi Graduate Education (No. P3090098101), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2017M612864), the Major International (Regional) Joint Research Project (No. 51210002), the National Basic Research Program of China (No. 2015CB932304) and the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong province (No. 2015A030312007).
- Xiao, Z. B.; Yang, Z.; Wang, L.; Nie, H. G.; Zhong, M. E.; Lai, Q. Q.; Xu, X. J.; Zhang, L. J.; Huang, S. M. A lightweight TiO2/graphene interlayer, applied as a highly effective polysulfide absorbent for fast, long-life lithium-sulfur batteries. Adv. Mater. 2015, 27, 2891–2898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhu, L.; Peng, H.-J.; Liang, J. Y.; Huang, J. Q.; Chen, C. M.; Guo, X. F.; Zhu, W. C.; Li, P.; Zhang, Q. Interconnected carbon nanotube/graphene nanosphere scaffolds as freestanding paper electrode for high-rate and ultra-stable lithium–sulfur batteries. Nano Energy 2015, 11, 746–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhen, L.; Zhang, J. T.; Lou, X. W. Hollow carbon nanofibers filled with MnO2 nanosheets as efficient sulfur hosts for lithium-sulfur batteries. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 12866–12890.Google Scholar
- Tang, C.; Zhang, Q.; Zhao, M. Q.; Huang, J. Q.; Cheng, X. B.; Tian, G. L.; Peng, H. J.; Wei, F. Nitrogen-doped aligned carbon nanotube/graphene sandwiches: Facile catalytic growth on bifunctional natural catalysts and their applications as scaffolds for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries. Adv. Mater. 2014, 26, 6100–6105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang, S. Z.; Wang, J. Y.; Pan, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. L.; Shen, P. K. Ultrahigh capacity and superior stability of three-dimensional porous graphene networks containing in situ grown carbon nanotube clusters as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries. J. Mater. Chem. A 2017, 5, 7595–7602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar