Advertisement

Building Simulation

, Volume 12, Issue 1, pp 99–112 | Cite as

Investigation of Mg-Y coated gasochromic smart windows for building applications

  • Runqi Liang
  • Dingming Liu
  • Yanyi SunEmail author
  • Xuanli LuoEmail author
  • David Grant
  • Gavin Walker
  • Yupeng Wu
Open Access
Research Article Building Thermal, Lighting, and Acoustics Modeling
  • 123 Downloads

Abstract

In the purpose of improving indoor comfort and achieving building energy conservation, significant efforts have been made to improve the performance of window systems. Smart windows have been increasingly considered as an efficient technology with adjustable control of their thermal and/or optical properties in response to instant changes of the environment. This paper explores the potential of using a durable Mg-Y based switchable mirror gasochromic (GC) material for building window applications. The selected Mg-Y based GC window provides a degree of flexibility to reflect the undesirable incident solar radiation rather than the other types of GC windows, which absorb the solar heat that might eventually go into the indoor space through convective, conductive and radiative heat transfer. Building simulations were carried out for a typical office with Mg-Y GC window applied using EnergyPlus. The characterization of the selected gasochromic smart window and its impact on building performance was comprehensively studied under 5 diverse climates in China. In addition, various control strategies in response to different environmental conditions or indoor comfort criteria are also considered. The results indicated that Mg-Y based films with excessively low transmittance at the reflective state are not beneficial from the perspective of building energy conservation, while potentially developed Mg-Y windows with relative higher transmittance and larger transmittance modulation can yield energy conservation of up to 27% when compared with standard double glazing. Overall, the work presented in this paper may be seen as offering potential advice and guidance on further development of switchable mirror GC material that seek to be applied into building windows for amplifying improvements in energy efficiency and occupant comfort.

Keywords

gaschromics energy consumption daylight performance SHGC switched hours 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the Innovate UK Research Project E-IPB-TS/P009263/1-102880. Xuanli Luo acknowledges the support of a Daphne Jackson Trust fellowship. A PhD studentship from the Faculty of Engineering, the University of Nottingham was awarded to Runqi Liang.

References

  1. Alesanco Y, Viñuales A, Rodriguez J, Tena-Zaera R (2018). All-in-one gel-based electrochromic devices: Strengths and recent developments. Materials, 11(3): 414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen K, Connelly K, Rutherford P, Wu Y (2017). Smart windows— Dynamic control of building energy performance. Energy and Buildings, 139: 535–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASHRAE (2001). International Weather for Energy Calculations (IWEC Weather Files) Users Manual and CD-ROM. Atlanta, GA, USA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.Google Scholar
  4. Baetens R, Jelle BP, Gustavsen A (2010). Properties, requirements and possibilities of smart windows for dynamic daylight and solar energy control in buildings: A state-of-the-art review. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 94: 87–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bao S, Yamada Y, Okada M, Yoshimura K (2006). Titanium-bufferlayer-inserted switchable mirror based on Mg–Ni alloy thin film. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 45: L588–L5960.Google Scholar
  6. Bao S, Tajima K, Yamada Y, Okada M, Yoshimura K (2008). Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) top-covered Mg-Ni switchable mirror thin films. Materials Transactions, 49: 1919–1921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bao S, Yamada Y, Tajima K, Jin P, Okada M, Yoshimura K (2012). Switchable mirror based on Mg–Zr–H thin films. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 513: 495–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berardi U, Anaraki HK (2015). Analysis of the impacts of light shelves on the useful daylight illuminance in office buildings in Toronto. Energy Procedia, 78: 1793–1798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. BSI (2011). BS EN 12464-1:2011 Light and Lighting—Lighting of Work Places. Indoor Work Places. BSI Stardard.Google Scholar
  10. Casini M (2018). Active dynamic windows for buildings: A review. Renewable Energy, 119: 923–934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CIBSE (1999). GuideA: Environmental Design. Services Engineers London: The Chartered Institution of Building.Google Scholar
  12. Crawley DB, Hand JW, Kummert M, Griffith BT (2008). Contrasting the capabilities of building energy performance simulation programs. Building and Environment, 43: 661–673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Feng W, Zou L, Gao G, Wu G, Shen J, Li W (2016). Gasochromic smart window: optical and thermal properties, energy simulation and feasibility analysis. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 144: 316–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Georg A, Graf W, Neumann R, Wittwer V (2000a). Mechanism of the gasochromic coloration of porous WO3 films. Solid State Ionics, 127: 319–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Georg A, Graf W, Neumann R, Wittwer V (2000b). Stability of gasochromic WO3 films. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 63: 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gillaspie DT, Tenent RC, Dillon AC (2010). Metal-oxide films for electrochromic applications: Present technology and future directions. Journal of Materials Chemistry, 20(43): 9585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Granqvist CG (2014). Electrochromics for smart windows: Oxide-based thin films and devices. Thin Solid Films, 564: 1–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Griessen R, Huiberts JN, Kremers M, van Gogh ATM, Koeman NJ, Dekker JP, Notten PHL (1997). Yttrium and lanthanum hydride films with switchable optical properties. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 253–254: 44–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hoffmann S, Lee ES, Clavero C (2014). Examination of the technical potential of near-infrared switching thermochromic windows for commercial building applications. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 123: 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang Y, Niu J-L, Chung T-M (2014). Comprehensive analysis on thermal and daylighting performance of glazing and shading designs on office building envelope in cooling-dominant climates. Applied Energy, 134: 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Janner A-M, Sluis P, Mercier V (2001). Cycling durability of switchable mirrors. Electrochimica Acta, 46: 2173–2178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jelle BP, Hynd A, Gustavsen A, Arasteh D, Goudey H, Hart R (2012). Fenestration of today and tomorrow: A state-of-the-art review and future research opportunities. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 96: 1–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. La M, Zhou H, Li N, Xin Y, Sha R, Bao S, Jin P (2017). Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface. Applied Surface Science, 403: 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liang R (2018). Development of an adaptive façade for visual comfort, daylight and thermal control element. PhD Thesis, University of Nottingham, UK.Google Scholar
  25. Liang R, Sun Y, Aburas M, Wilson R, Wu Y (2018). Evaluation of the thermal and optical performance of thermochromic windows for office buildings in China. Energy and Buildings, 176: 216–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mangkuto RA, Rohmah M, Asri AD (2016). Design optimisation for window size, orientation, and wall reflectance with regard to various daylight metrics and lighting energy demand: A case study of buildings in the tropics. Applied Energy, 164: 211–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ministry of Construction (2005). GB50189-2005. Design Standard for Energy Efficiency of Public Buildings. Beijing: Ministry of Construction of China.Google Scholar
  28. Nabil A, Mardaljevic J (2006). Useful daylight illuminances: A replacement for daylight factors. Energy and Buildings, 38: 905–913.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nishizawa K, Yamada Y, Yoshimura K (2017). Low-temperature chemical fabrication of Pt-WO3 gasochromic switchable films using UV irradiation. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 170: 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Peng J, Lu L, Yang H (2013). An experimental study of the thermal performance of a novel photovoltaic double-skin facade in Hong Kong. Solar Energy, 97: 293–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Peng J, Lu L, Yang H, Ma T (2015). Validation of the Sandia model with indoor and outdoor measurements for semi-transparent amorphous silicon PV modules. Renewable Energy, 80, 316–323.Google Scholar
  32. Saeli M, Piccirillo C, Parkin IP, Binions R, Ridley I (2010). Energy modelling studies of thermochromic glazing. Energy and Buildings, 42: 1666–1673.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sun Y, Liang R, Wu Y, Wilson R, Rutherford P (2017). Development of a comprehensive method to analyse glazing systems with Parallel Slat Transparent Insulation material (PS-TIM). Applied Energy, 205: 951–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sun Y, Liang R, Wu Y, Wilson R, Rutherford P (2018). Glazing systems with Parallel Slats Transparent Insulation Material (PS-TIM): Evaluation of building energy and daylight performance. Energy and Buildings, 159: 213–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Tajima K, Yamada Y, Bao S, Okada M, Yoshimura K (2008). High durability of clear transparency all-solid-state switchable mirror based on magnesium–titanium thin film. Applied Physics Express, 1: 067007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tajima K, Yamada Y, Yoshimura K (2014). Switchable mirror glass with a Mg–Zr–Ni ternary alloy thin film. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 126: 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang M, Peng J, Li N, Lu L, Ma T, Yang H (2016). Assessment of energy performance of semi-transparent PV insulating glass units using a validated simulation model. Energy, 112: 538–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Warwick MEA, Ridley I, Binions R (2014). The effect of transition gradient in thermochromic glazing systems. Energy and Buildings, 77: 80–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wittwer V, Datz M, Ell J, Georg A, Graf W, Walze G (2004). Gasochromic windows. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 84: 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yaacob MH, Campbell JL, Wisitsoraat A, Wlodarski W (2011). Gasochromic response of Pd/NiO nanostructured film towards hydrogen. Sensor Letters, 9: 898–901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yamada Y, Miura M, Tajima K, Okada M, Yoshimura K (2013). Optical switching durability of switchable mirrors based on magnesium–yttrium alloy thin films. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 117: 396–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yamada Y, Miura M, Tajima K, Okada M, Yoshimura K (2014). Film thickness change of switchable mirrors using Mg3Y alloy thin films due to hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 126: 237–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ye H, Long L, Zhang H, Xu B, Gao Y, Kang L, Chen Z (2013). The demonstration and simulation of the application performance of the vanadium dioxide single glazing. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 117: 168–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yoshimura K, Bao S, Yamada Y, Okada M (2006). Optical switching property of Pd-capped Mg–Ni alloy thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering. Vacuum, 80: 684–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yoshimura K, Yamada Y, Bao S, Tajima K, Okada M (2007). Degradation of switchable mirror based on Mg–Ni alloy thin film. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 46: 4260–4264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yoshimura K, Yamada Y, Bao S, Tajima K, Okada M (2009). Preparation and characterization of gasochromic switchable-mirror window with practical size. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 93: 2138–2142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Yoshimura K, Tajima K, Yamada Y, Okada M (2010). Stress in switchable mirror thin film resulting from gasochromic switching. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, 49: 075701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang W, Lu L, Peng J, Song A (2016). Comparison of the overall energy performance of semi-transparent photovoltaic windows and common energy-efficient windows in Hong Kong. Energy and Buildings, 128: 511–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Tsinghua University Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Open Access: This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Built Environment, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK
  2. 2.Advanced Materials Research Group, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of NottinghamNottinghamUK

Personalised recommendations