Would LEED-UHI greenery and high albedo strategies mitigate climate change at neighborhood scale in Cairo, Egypt?
- 60 Downloads
Neighborhood has always been of significant interest to built environment stockholders as a basic planning unit. However, any discussion in these concerns, without drawing attention to sustainable microclimate approaches, would still in a mess at a time of increasing population and climate change. Emergence of the sustainable development concept at the mid-20th century and its emphasis led to increasing crucial role that the urban green infrastructure along with reflective materials can play in mitigating neighborhood microclimate’s symptoms of climate change. Considering the lack of studies for urban heat island (UHI) in hot arid regions, particularly in Egypt and the limited number of studies concerning the numerical simulation of all mitigation strategies incorporated, this research studies the mitigation of UHI phenomenon in a case study in Cairo in present and future (2020, 2050 and 2080) through applying the criteria of tree lines, green roofs, high albedo pavements and shading structures within the neighborhood sustainability assessment tool (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design for Neighborhood; LEED-ND). The microclimatic numerical CFD simulations of ENVI-met 4.0 was used following the measurement of LAI and Albedo of selected Egyptian trees to assess UHI through air and radiant temperature differences before and after applying mitigation strategies. Results demonstrate a considerable ability to acclimatize the microclimate in terms of better conditions in present and future.
Keywordsurban trees green roofs UHI LEED climate change
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Akbari H, Davis S, Dorsano S, Huang J, Winnett S (1992). Cooling Our Communities. A Guidebook on Tree Planting and Light-Colored Surfacing. US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Akbari H, Rose LS, Taha H (1999). Characterizing the fabric of the urban environment: A case study of Sacramento, California. US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
- Ali-Toudert F (2005). Dependence of outdoor thermal comfort on street design in hot and dry climate. PhD Thesis, Institutes der Universität Freiburg, Germany.Google Scholar
- ASTM (1980). ASTM E1980-11, Standard Practice for Calculating Solar Reflectance Index of Horizontal and Lowsloped Opaque Surfaces. West Conshohocken, PA, USA: ASTM International.Google Scholar
- AutoDesk (2010). ECOTECT2010. Available at https://doi.org/www.autodesk.co.uk/adsk/servlet/mform?validate=no&siteID=452932&id=14205163. Accessed 4 Apr 2017.Google Scholar
- CCWorldWeatherGen (2017). Climate Change World Weather File Generator, V1.4. Available at https://doi.org/www.serg.soton.ac.uk/ccworldweathergen. Accessed Jun 2017.Google Scholar
- Fahmy M, Ibrahim Y, Mokhtar H (2017b). Optimization of neighbourhood green rating for existing urban forms through mitigation strategies: A case study in Cairo, Egypt. In: Proceedings of the 33rd PLEA International Conference, Design to Thrive. Edinburgh, UK.Google Scholar
- Givoni B (1998). Climate Consideration in Urban and Building Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
- Hulme M (2002). Climate change scenarios for the United Kingdom: The UKCIP02 scientific report. Tyndall Centre for Climate Mental Sciences University.Google Scholar
- IPCC (2014). Climate change 2014: Synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Switzerland.Google Scholar
- IPCC (2018). IPCC Data Distribution Center (DDC). Available at https://doi.org/www.ipcc-data.org/sres/hadcm3_download.html. Accessed 12 Feb 2018.Google Scholar
- Jensen R, Haise H (1963). Estimating evapotranspiration of a plant from solar radiation. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers, Journal of the Irrigation and Drainage Division, 89:15–41.Google Scholar
- Kinouchi T, Yoshinaka T, Fukae N, Kanda M (2004). Development of cool pavement with dark colored high albedo coating. In: Proceedings of the 5th Conference for the Urban Environment. American Meteorological Society, Vancouver, Canada.Google Scholar
- KippZonen (2016). CMP21 Pyranometer. Available at https://doi.org/www.kippzonen.com/Product/14/CMP21-Pyranometer#.WBL8a_l97IU. Accessed 18 Oct 2016.Google Scholar
- LI-COR (2017). LI-COR Plant Canopy Analizer. Available at https://doi.org/www.licor.com/env/products/leaf_area/LAI-2200C. Accessed 18 Sept 2017.Google Scholar
- McPherson EG, Nowak DJ, Rowntree RA (1994). Chicago’s urban forest ecosystem: Results of the Chicago Urban Forest Climate Project. General Technical Report NE-186, Radnor, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station.Google Scholar
- McPherson EG, Simpson JR (1995). Shade trees as a demand-side resource. Home Energy, 12(2): 11–17.Google Scholar
- Ramadan, M. F. A. (2010). Interactive urban form design of local climate scale in hot semi-arid zone. PhD Thesis, The University of Sheffield, UK.Google Scholar
- Rijal HB, Ooka R, Huang H, Katsuki T, Oh B (2010). Study on heat island mitigation effect of large-scale greenery using numerical simulation. In: Proceedings of the10th REHVA WORLD CONGRESS (Clima 2010), Antalya, Turkey.Google Scholar