Mitochondrial biology in airway pathogenesis and the role of NRF2

  • Hye-Youn ChoEmail author
  • Steven R. Kleeberger


A constant improvement in understanding of mitochondrial biology has provided new insights into mitochondrial dysfunction in human disease pathogenesis. Impaired mitochondrial dynamics caused by various stressors are characterized by structural abnormalities and leakage, compromised turnover, and reactive oxygen species overproduction in mitochondria as well as increased mitochondrial DNA mutation frequency, which leads to modified energy production and mitochondria-derived cell signaling. The mitochondrial dysfunction in airway epithelial, smooth muscle, and endothelial cells has been implicated in diseases including chronic obstructive lung diseases and acute lung injury. Increasing evidence indicates that the NRF2-antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway not only enhances redox defense but also facilitates mitochondrial homeostasis and bioenergetics. Identification of functional or potential AREs further supports the role for Nrf2 in mitochondrial dysfunction-associated airway disorders. While clinical reports indicate mixed efficacy, NRF2 agonists acting on respiratory mitochondrial dynamics are potentially beneficial. In lung cancer, growth advantage provided by sustained NRF2 activation is suggested to be through increased cellular antioxidant defense as well as mitochondria reinforcement and metabolic reprogramming to the preferred pathways to meet the increased energy demands of uncontrolled cell proliferation. Further studies are warranted to better understand NRF2 regulation of mitochondrial functions as therapeutic targets in airway disorders.


NRF2 Mitochondria Lung Antioxidant response element Metabolism Sulforaphane 



The research involved in the current review article was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). The authors thank Drs. Michael Fessler and Xuting Wang at the NIEHS for providing excellent review of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Immunity, Inflammation, and Disease LaboratoryNational Institute of Environmental Health SciencesResearch Triangle ParkUSA

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