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The Potential of Stem Cells and Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes in Treating Cardiovascular Diseases

  • Jing Ni
  • Yuxi Sun
  • Zheng LiuEmail author
Review Article

Abstract

In recent years, the cardiac protective mechanisms of stem cells have become a research focus. Increasing evidence has suggested that stem cells release vesicles, including exosomes and micro-vesicles. The content of these vesicles relies on an extracellular stimulus, and active ingredients are extensively being studied. Previous studies have confirmed that stem cell-derived exosomes have a cardiac protective function similar to that of stem cells, and promote angiogenesis, decrease apoptosis, and respond to stress. Compared to stem cells, exosomes are more stable without aneuploidy and immune rejection, and may be a promising and effective therapy for cardiovascular diseases. In this review, the biological functions and molecular mechanisms of stem cells and stem cell-derived exosomes are discussed.

Keywords

Cardiovascular diseases Exosomes Stem cells 

Abbreviations

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

ASC

Adult stem cell

BMC

Bone marrow stem cell

CPC

Cardiac progenitor cell

CPC-exo

CPC-derived exosomes

CSC

Cardiac stem cell

CVD

Cardiovascular diseases

DMSO

2-Methyl sulfoxide

ESC

Embryonic stem cell

EV

Extracellular vesicle

HF

Heart failure

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

HSC

Hematopoietic stem cell

iPSC

Induced pluripotent stem cell

iPS-exo

Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived exosomes

miRNA

MicroRNA

mRNA

Messenger RNA

MSC

Mesenchymal stem cell

MSC-exo

MSC-derived exosome

siRNA

Small interfering RNA

Notes

Funding

This study was supported by grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 81570303 and 81370297).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This study does not involve human participants or animals.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CardiologyShanghai Tenth People’s HospitalShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Pan-Vascular Research Institute, Heart, Lung, and Blood CenterTongji University School of MedicineShanghaiChina

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