Kaposi sarcoma following autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  • Utku IltarEmail author
  • Vedat Aslan
  • Mesut Gocer
  • Fatma Aykac
  • İlknur Nizam
  • Mehmet Çelik
  • Faruk Gulec
  • Turgay Ulaş
  • Erdal Kurtoğlu
case report



Kaposi sarcoma is a low grade angioproliferative disorder which requires infection with human herpes virus 8 for its development. Skin lesions can be observed frequently in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cases, but there is a limited number of cases of Kaposi sarcoma with chronic lymphocytic leukemia in the literature.

Case report

Here, we present a case report of an iatrogenic Kaposi sarcoma in a 79-year-old man recently diagnosed with autoimmune hemolytic anemia secondary to chronic lymphocytic leukemia. After treatment with methylprednisolone and rituximab, the patient developed Kaposi sarcoma nodular lesions on his legs. After three courses of oral etoposide for Kaposi sarcoma, the lesions completely disappeared at the end of the third month of treatment.


Even though the mortality rate is low with Kaposi sarcoma, it can cause physical and psychological burden for the patients. Additional investigations and raising awareness of Kaposi sarcoma while evaluating the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are needed. Short-term oral etoposide was tolerated well in this patient with a good clinical response.


Kaposi’s sarcoma Chronic lymphocytic leukemia Human herpes virus-8 Rituximab Case report 


Compliance with ethical guidelines

Conflict of interest

U. Iltar, V. Aslan, M. Gocer, F. Aykac, İ. Nizam, M. Çelik, F. Gulec, T. Ulaş, and E. Kurtoğlu declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical standards

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. For images or other information within the manuscript which identify patients, consent was obtained from them and/or their legal guardians.


  1. 1.
    Douglas JL, Gustin JK, Dezube B, Pantanowitz JL, Moses AV. Kaposi’s sarcoma: a model of both malignancy and chronic inflammation. Panminerva Med. 2007;49(3):119–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vangipuram R, Tyring SK. Epidemiology of Kaposi sarcoma: review and description of the nonepidemic variant. Int J Dermatol. 2018; Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hisada M, Biggar RJ, Greene MH, Fraumeni JF Jr, Travis LB. Solid tumors after chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2001;98(6):1979–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hacioglu MB, Sahin S, Karatas F, Aytekin A. A rare coexistence—chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Kaposi sarcoma: case report and review of the literature. J Cancer Res Ther. 2015;11(4):954–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wijermans PW, van Groningen K, van Royen EA, Bruijn JA. Kaposi’s sarcoma in an HIV-negative CLL patient as the cause of thrombocytopenia. Ann Hematol. 1994;68(6):307–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kose F, Kocer NE, Sumbul AT, Sezer A, Yilkan O. Kaposi’s sarcoma following chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a rare entity. Case Rep Oncol. 2012;5(2):271–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Contu L, Carcassi C, La Nasa G, Zurrida SM, Sirigu F, Del Giacco S, Cerimele D, Longinotti M, Pitzus F. A case of classical Kaposi’s sarcoma in B‑cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Tumori. 1986;72(4):365–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang QJ, Jenkins FJ, Jacobson LP, Kingsley LA, Day RD, Zhang ZW, Meng YX, Pellett PE, Kousoulas KG, Baghian A, Rinaldo CR Jr.. Primary human herpesvirus 8 infection generates a broadly specific CD8(+) T‑cell response to viral lytic cycle proteins. Blood. 2001 Apr 15;97(8):2366–73. Erratum. Blood. 2002;99(10):3499.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Manusow D, Weinerman BH. Subsequent neoplasia in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. JAMA. 1975;232(3):267–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brewer JD, Shanafelt TD, Call TG, Cerhan JR, Roenigk RK, Weaver AL, Otley CC. Increased incidence of malignant melanoma and other rare cutaneous cancers in the setting of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Int J Dermatol. 2015;54(8):e287–e93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of HematologyAntalya Training and Research HospitalAntalyaTurkey
  2. 2.Department of PathologyAntalya Training and Research HospitalAntalyaTurkey
  3. 3.School of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Division of HematologyNear East UniversityNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations