Pathology & Oncology Research

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 819–821 | Cite as

Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 Inhibits Growth and Proliferation Potential of Smad4 and p53 Mutated Human Colon Adenocarcinoma Cells

  • Ramamoorthi Ganesan
  • Nageswaran SivalingamEmail author
Letter to the Editor

To the Editor

Colon cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading contributors of cancer related deaths in the United States [1]. The American cancer society estimated that colon cancer causes about 49,190 deaths in 2016 [2]. Although current therapeutics have proved to be clinically favourable for patients who were diagnosed at early stages, development of multi-drug resistance and various side effects remains the potential obstacle for advanced stages of colon cancer [3]. Recent data suggests that the 5 year survival rate for advanced stage colon cancer is about 5% with increased mortality rate of more than 663,000 deaths annually worldwide [2, 3]. Molecular evidence confirmed that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) plays a crucial role in the metastatic progression of colon cancer and multi-drug resistance [4].

TGF-β regulates the expression of a plethora of genes involved in fundamental cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation,...



The authors would like to acknowledge the Department of Biotechnology, School of Bioengineering, SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur- 603203, Tamilnadu, India for the financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


  1. 1.
    Siegel R, Ma J, Zou Z, Jemal A (2014) Cancer statistics 2014. CA Cancer J Clin 64:9–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siegel RL, Miller KD, Jemal A (2016) Cancer statistics 2016. CA Cancer J Clin 66:7–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wang L, Xue M, Chung DC (2016) c-Myc is regulated by HIF-2α in chronic hypoxia and influences sensitivity to 5-FU in colon cancer. Oncotarget 7:78910–78917Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Principe DR, DeCant B, Staudacher J et al (2015) Loss of TGFβ signaling promotes colon cancer progression and tumor-associated inflammation. Oncotarget 8:3826–3839Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meulmeester E, Dijke P (2011) The dynamic roles of TGF-β in cancer. J Pathol 223:206–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Connolly EC, Freimuth J, Akhurst RJ (2012) Complexities of TGF-β targeted cancer therapy. Int J Biol Sci 8:964–978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Derynck R, Zhang YE (2003) Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways in TGF-beta family signalling. Nature 425:577–584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ramamoorthi G, Sivalingam N (2014) Molecular mechanism of TGF-β signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis and status of curcumin as chemopreventive strategy. Tumour Biol 35:7295–7305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lampropoulos P, Zizi-Sermpetzoglou A, Rizos S, Kostakis A, Nikiteas N, Papavassiliou AG (2012) TGF-beta signalling in colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett 314:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhang B, Halder SK, Kashikar ND et al (2010) Antimetastatic role of Smad4 signaling in colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology 138:969–980CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kardamakis D, Ravazoula P, Zolota V, Salakou S, Tepetes K, Kalogeropoulou C (2004) The potential role of TGFβ1, TGFβ2 and TGFβ3 protein expression in colorectal carcinomas. Strahlenther Onkol 18:201–208Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gulubova M, Manolova I, Ananiev J, Julianov A, Yovchev Y, Peeva K (2010) Role of TGF-β1, its receptor TGFβRII, and Smad proteins in the progression of colorectal cancer. Int J Color Dis 25:591–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Han S, Bui NT, Ho MT, Kim YM, Cho M, Shin DB (2016) Dexamethasone inhibits TGF-β1-induced cell migration by regulating the ERK and AKT pathways in human colon cancer cells via CYR61. Cancer Res Treat 48:1141–1153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Massagué J (2008) TGF beta in Cancer. Cell 134:215–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Chen S, Zhu J, Zuo S et al (2015) 1,25(OH)2D3 attenuates TGF-β1/β2-induced increased migration and invasion via inhibiting epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 468:130–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watson JL, Hill R, Yaffe PB et al (2010) Curcumin causes superoxide anion production and p53-independent apoptosis in human colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett 297:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Arányi Lajos Foundation 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology, School of BioengineeringSRM Institute of Science and TechnologyKattankulathurIndia

Personalised recommendations