Virologica Sinica

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 235–239 | Cite as

Boosting Global Yellow Fever Vaccine Supply for Epidemic Preparedness: 3 Actions for China and the USA

  • Daniel R. LuceyEmail author
  • Kristen R. Kent

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute disease caused by a flavivirus that infects the liver. It can cause jaundice, bleeding, kidney damage, and death. No antiviral therapy exists. A vaccine does exist, however, and fortunately confers life-long immunity after a single dose (Monath et al.2016; WHO 2017a, b).

YF is transmitted by mosquitoes in two main cycles. In the sylvatic cycle the virus is spread by forest-dwelling mosquitoes, such as Aedes africanus and Haemagogus mosquitoes, between non-human primates and humans. In the urban cycle the virus is spread primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes between humans. These Aedes mosquitoes can also transmit Dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya viruses.

YF exists in multiple countries in sub-Saharan Africa and in Latin America and Caribbean countries (Figs.  1, 2) (WHO 2017a, 2018b). For reasons that are still not well understood, YF has not caused epidemics anywhere in Asia, despite the widespread presence of Aedes-transmitted dengue epidemics (WHO 2017a, b;...


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Animal and Human Rights Statement

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Wuhan Institute of Virology, CAS 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine-Infectious DiseasesGeorgetown University HospitalWashingtonUSA
  2. 2.Medical SchoolGeorgetown University School of MedicineWashingtonUSA

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