Central Composite Design for Optimization of Zoledronic Acid Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles

  • Ongun Mehmet Saka
  • Umut Can Öz
  • Berrin KüçüktürkmenEmail author
  • Burcu Devrim
  • Asuman Bozkır
Original Article



Zoledronic acid (ZA) is one of the drugs used clinically for the treatment of osteoporosis, and its therapeutic effect is due to the inhibition of osteoclastic cells leading to bone resorption. The aim of this study is developing an optimization method for poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles of ZA which is intended for local application to enable guided bone regeneration.


Three formulation parameters (ZA content, PLGA/Pluronic F68 ratio, and organic to aqueous phase ratio) were optimized to evaluate their effects on particle size (Y1), polydispersity index (PDI) (Y2), zeta potential (Y3), and entrapment efficiency (Y4) utilizing central composite experimental design (CCD). Interaction among components was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction analysis. Morphology of nanoparticles was visualized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Stability studies of nanoparticles were also carried out for 6 months.


The results revealed that formulation parameters significantly affected Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4 of the nanoparticles. The developed quadratic model showed high correlation (R2 > 0.84) between predicted response and evaluated parameters. Spherical nanoparticles with low mean particle size (< 106.0 nm) and high encapsulation efficiency (> 39.54%) were obtained with the optimized nanoparticle formulation and maintained colloidal stability for 6 months.


The use of CCD for the optimization of ZA-loaded PLGA nanoparticles has provided accessibility to the formulation with optimum properties with less experimental procedure and therefore presents an important model for predicting the properties of nanoparticles prepared with PLGA polymer commonly used in the field of drug delivery.


Central composite design Optimization Zoledronic acid PLGA Nanoparticle 


Funding Information

This research is funded by the Turkish Scientific and Technological Research Council (TÜBİTAK grant number 112S533).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of PharmacyAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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