Advertisement

A survey on authentication and access control for mobile networks: from 4G to 5G

  • Shanay BehradEmail author
  • Emmanuel Bertin
  • Noel Crespi
Article

Abstract

The next generation of mobile networks, 5G, is expected to support a set of multiple requirements and use cases that will create an improved user experience. 5G will also be able to provide a high level of security by considering a variety of security aspects, such as authentication and access control mechanisms. The current protocol in 4G designed to address security is 4G AKA. It presents some weaknesses and vulnerabilities that negatively affect operators’ networks and their subscribers’ security. In designing an authentication and access control mechanism for 5G, it is crucial to evaluate both 4G AKA’s weaknesses and the new requirements of 5G. In this paper, we survey the vulnerabilities of the 4G AKA protocol, as well as the current 5G architectural answers brought by the 3GPP.

Keywords

5G, mobile network Authentication and access control AKA protocol 

Notes

References

  1. 1.
    3GPP (2017) Security Architecture, TS 33.102, Tech. Spec. 14.1.0Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    3GPP (2017) Security Architecture, TS 33.401, Tech. Spec. 15.1.0Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    3GPP (2017) Network Architecture, TS 23.002, Tech. Spec. 14.1.0Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cao J, Ma M, Li H, Zhang Y, Luo Z (2014) A survey on security aspects for LTE and LTE-A networks. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 16(1):283–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    3GPP (2017) Security Architecture and Procedures for 5G System, TS 33.501, Tech. Spec. 995985Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    3GPP (2018) Numbering, Addressing and Identification, TS 23.003, Tech. Spec. 15.6.0Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Forsberg D, Horn G, Moeller W-D, Niemi V (2012) LTE security. WileyGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tsay J-K, Mjølsnes SF (2012) A vulnerability in the umts and lte authentication and key agreement protocols. In: International Conference on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, pp 65–76Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Abdrabou MA, Elbayoumy ADE, El-Wanis EA (2015) LTE authentication protocol (EPS-AKA) weaknesses solution. In: Intelligent Computing and Information Systems (ICICIS), 2015 IEEE Seventh International Conference on, pp 434–441Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Park Y, Park T (2007) A survey of security threats on 4G networks. In: Globecom Workshops, 2007 IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Abdo JB, Demerjian J, Ahmad K, Chaouchi H, Pujolle G (2013) EPS mutual authentication and crypt-analyzing SPAKA. In: Computing, Management and Telecommunications (ComManTel), 2013 International Conference on, pp 303–308Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Haddad ZJ, Taha S, Saroit IA (2017) Anonymous authentication and location privacy preserving schemes for LTE-A networks. Egypt Inform J 18:193–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Li X, Wang Y (2011) Security enhanced authentication and key agreement protocol for LTE/SAE network. In: Wireless Communications, Networking and Mobile Computing (WiCOM), 2011 7th International Conference on, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Franklin JV, Paramasivam K (2011) Enhanced authentication protocol for improving security in 3GPP LTE networks. In: Proc. International Conference on Information and Network Technology (ICINT 2011)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Abdo JBB, Chaouchi H, Aoude M (2012) Ensured confidentiality authentication and key agreement protocol for EPS. In: Broadband Networks and Fast Internet (RELABIRA), 2012 Symposium on, pp 73–77Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fouque P-A, Onete C, Richard B (2016) Achieving better privacy for the 3GPP AKA protocol, IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive, vol 2016, p 480Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Shaik A, Borgaonkar R, Asokan N, Niemi V, Seifert J-P (2015) Practical attacks against privacy and availability in 4G/LTE mobile communication systems, arXiv preprint arXiv:1510.07563Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bhasker D (2013) 4G LTE security for mobile network operators. Cyber Secur Inf Sys Inf Anal Cent(CSIAC) 1(4):20–29Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cichonski J, Franklin JM, Bartock M (2016) LTE architecture overview and security analysis. NIST Draft NISTIR, vol 8071Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hamandi K, Sarji I, Chehab A, Elhajj IH, Kayssi A (2013) Privacy enhanced and computationally efficient HSK-AKA LTE scheme. In: Advanced Information Networking and Applications Workshops (WAINA), 2013 27th International Conference on, pp 929–934Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Khan MSA, Mitchell CJ (2014) Another look at privacy threats in 3G mobile telephony. In: Australasian Conference on Information Security and Privacy, pp. 386–396Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Degefa FB, Lee D, Kim J, Choi Y, Won D (2016) Performance and security enhanced authentication and key agreement protocol for SAE/LTE network. Comput Netw 94:145–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Mavoungou S, Kaddoum G, Taha M, Matar G (2016) Survey on threats and attacks on mobile networks. IEEE Access 4:4543–4572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Choudhury H, Roychoudhury B, Saikia DK (2012) Enhancing user identity privacy in LTE,” in Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications (TrustCom), 2012 IEEE 11th International Conference on, pp 949–957Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mjølsnes S, Tsay J-K (2012) Computational security analysis of the UMTS and LTE authentication and key agreement protocolsGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qiang L, Zhou W, Cui B, Na L (2014) Security analysis of TAU procedure in LTE network,” in P2P, Parallel, Grid, Cloud and Internet Computing (3PGCIC), 2014 Ninth International Conference on, pp 372–376Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Escudero-Andreu G, Raphael CP, Parish DJ (2012) Analysis and design of security for next generation 4G cellular networks. In: The 13th annual post graduate symposium on the convergence of telecommunications, networking and broad-casting (PGNET)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    3GPP (2009) Rationale and Track of Security Decisions in Long Term Evolved (LTE) RAN / 3GPP System Architecture Evolution, TR 33.821, Tech. Report. 1031871Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hamandi K, Sarji I, Elhajj IH, Chehab A, Kayssi A (2013) W-AKA: privacy-enhanced LTE-AKA using secured channel over Wi-Fi. In: Wireless Telecommunications Symposium (WTS), 2013, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bikos AN, Sklavos N (2013) LTE/SAE security issues on 4G wireless networks. IEEE Secur Priv 11(2):55–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Alt S, Fouque P-A, Macario-Rat G, Onete C, Richard B (2016) A cryptographic analysis of UMTS/LTE AKA. In: International Conference on Applied Cryptography and Network Security, pp 18–35Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Arapinis M et al (2012) New privacy issues in mobile telephony: fix and verification. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on computer and communications security, pp 205–216Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lee M-F, Smart NP, Warinschi B, Watson GJ (2014) Anonymity guarantees of the UMTS/LTE authentication and connection protocol. Int J Inf Secur 13(6):513–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Othmen S, Zarai F, Obaidat MS, Belghith A (2013) Re-authentication protocol from WLAN to LTE (ReP WLAN-LTE) In: Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), 2013 IEEE, pp 1446–1451Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    El Idrissi YEH, Zahid N, Jedra M (2012) Security analysis of 3GPP (LTE)—WLAN interworking and a new local authentication method based on EAP-AKA. In: Future Generation Communication Technology (FGCT), 2012 International Conference on, pp 137–142Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mun H, Han K, Kim K (2009) 3G-WLAN interworking: security analysis and new authentication and key agreement based on EAP-AKA. In: Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, WTS 2009, 2009, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Alliance N (2015) 5G white paper, Next generation mobile networks, white paperGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schneider P, Horn G (2015) Towards 5G security. In: Trustcom/BigDataSE/ISPA, 2015 IEEE, vol 1, pp 1165–1170Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    5G Ensure Project (2016) Deliverable D2.4 Security Architecture (draft)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li J, Wen M, Zhang T (2016) Group-based authentication and key agreement with dynamic policy updating for MTC in LTE-A networks. IEEE Internet Things J 3(3):408–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Su W-T, Wong W-M, Chen W-C (2016) A survey of performance improvement by group-based authentication in IoT. In: Applied System Innovation (ICASI), 2016 International Conference on, pp 1–4Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Giustolisi R, Gerhmann C (2016) Threats to 5G group-based authentication. In: 13th International Conference on Security and Cryptography (SECRYPT 2016), 2628 July 2016, Madrid, SpainGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Foukas X, Patounas G, Elmokashfi A, Marina MK (2017) Network slicing in 5G: survey and challenges. IEEE Commun Mag 55(5):94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chatras B, Kwong UST, Bihannic N (2017) NFV enabling network slicing for 5G. In: Innovations in Clouds, Internet and Networks (ICIN), 2017 20th Conference on, pp 219–225Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ordonez-Lucena J, Ameigeiras P, Lopez D, Ramos-Munoz JJ, Lorca J, Folgueira J (2017) Network slicing for 5G with SDN/NFV: concepts, architectures, and challenges. IEEE Commun Mag 55(5):80–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Katsalis K, Nikaein N, Schiller E, Ksentini A, Braun T (2017) Network slices toward 5G communications: slicing the LTE network. IEEE Commun Mag 55(8):146–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rost P, Mannweiler C, Michalopoulos DS, Sartori C, Sciancalepore V, Sastry N, Holland O, Tayade S, Han B, Bega D, Aziz D, Bakker H (2017) Network slicing to enable scalability and flexibility in 5G mobile networks. IEEE Commun Mag 55(5):72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    5G Ensure Project (2016) Deliverable D2.1 Use CasesGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    5GPP (2017) 5G PPP Phase1 Security Landscape, white paperGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    3GPP (2017) System Architecture for the 5G System, TS 23.501, Tech. Spec. 4356743Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    3GPP (2017) Study of Security Aspects of the Next Generation System, TR 33.899, Tech. Report. 19482209Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Han C-K, Choi H-K (2014) Security analysis of handover key management in 4G LTE/SAE networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 13(2):457–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Institut Mines-Télécom and Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Orange LabsCaenFrance
  2. 2.Institut Mines-TelecomTelecom SudParis, CNRS 5157ÉvryFrance

Personalised recommendations