International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 749–754 | Cite as

Novel Steel and Aramid/Phenol Composite Gear for a Transmission with Optimum Design and FEM Vibration Analysis

  • Hyunwoong Kim
  • Cheol KimEmail author
  • Sanghyeon Kim
  • Bongjoon Kim
  • Chaehong Lim


Hybrid gears made of steel and fiber-reinforced polymeric composite material are recently attracting electric vehicle designers’ attention due to their possible advantages such as lightweight and lessened transfer of noise and vibration for automotive transmissions. Polymeric composite material may be placed in-between the steel teeth and central hub regions in the radial direction of the gear. The partial usage of polymeric composite material for a gear is expected to reduce the transmissibility of vibration from teeth to hub as well as the weight of the gear-train. Using the finite element method, optimization, vibration and noise analyses have been performed in order to calculate SPL (sound pressure level) for pure steel and hybrid gears, separately. At a specified point of a tooth and a hub, the changes in SPL are computed and are compared to check how effective the polymeric composite region is. The reduction in SPL of the hybrid gear is observed by comparing to that of a pure steel gear. To minimize the weight of the hybrid gear, design optimization is applied by considering fatigue strength of steel and composite material.

Key Words

Composite gear Noise reduction Vibration Car transmission Kevlar/Phenol composite 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



This research was supported by a grant (R&D, P0002124) from the great regional industry cooperative research program of Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy and KIAT.


  1. Arora, J. S. (2016). Introduction to Optimum Design. 4th edn. Elsevier. Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  2. Handschuh, R. F., LaBerge, K. E., DeLuca, S. and Pelagalli, R. (2014). Vibration and Operational Characteristics of a Composite-steel Hybrid Gear. NASA/TM-2014-216646.Google Scholar
  3. Handschuh, R. F., Roberts, G. D. and Sinnamon, R. R. (2012). Hybrid Gear Preliminary Results — Application of Composites to Dynamic Mechanical Components. NASA/TM-2012-217630.Google Scholar
  4. Hubbe, M. A. and Koukoulas, A. A. (2016). Wet-laid nonwonwovens manufacture — Chemical approaches using synthetic and cellulosic fibers. BioResources 11, 2, 5500–5552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kim, G., Lee, J. and Seo, T. (2013). Durability characteristics analysis of plastic worm wheel with glass fiber reinforced polyamide. Materials 10, 6, 1873–1890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nagaya, K., Li, Y., Kubo, K. and Ando, Y. (2006). Low noise composite gear consisting of resin and steel without lubrication. J. Advanced Science 18, 1, 23–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Nitsch, C., Hohn, B. R., Stahl, K., Otto, M., Heider, M. and Vogler, F. (2013). Prospects of compound-gears for e-mobility applications. Proc. Conf. Future Automotive Technology: Focus Electromobility, Munchen, Germany.Google Scholar
  8. Rajeshkumar, S. and Manoharan, R. (2017). Design and analysis of composite spur gears using finite element method. IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 263, 062048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Sharma, A., Aggarwal, M. L. and Singh, L. (2017). Experimental investigation into the effect of noise and damping using composite spur gear. Materials Today: Proceedings 4, 2, 2777–2782.Google Scholar
  10. Zhou, J. and Wenlei, S. (2014). Vibration and noise radiation characteristics of gear transmission system. J. Low Frequency Noise, Vibration and Active Control 33, 4, 485–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© KSAE 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hyunwoong Kim
    • 1
  • Cheol Kim
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sanghyeon Kim
    • 2
  • Bongjoon Kim
    • 2
  • Chaehong Lim
    • 3
  1. 1.Graduate School of Mechanical EngineeringKyungpook National UniversityDaeguKorea
  2. 2.Central R&DKyung Chang Industrial Co.DaeguKorea
  3. 3.Transmission Precedent Design TeamHyundai Motor CompanyGyeonggiKorea

Personalised recommendations