Advertisement

Online Measuring Method for the Engines’ IVC Timing Based on the In-Cylinder Pressure Fluctuation

  • Fushui Liu
  • Zhongjie Shi
  • Yikai LiEmail author
  • Yang Hua
  • Yanlin Chen
  • Yongli Gao
Article
  • 16 Downloads

Abstract

The in-cylinder pressure fluctuations caused by intake valve closure (IVC) event were first investigated experimentally based on a single cylinder diesel engine with different cams. The experimental results show that the occurrence of the in-cylinder pressure fluctuation during the compression stroke has a close correlation with the IVC event. The start time of the pressure oscillation advances as the IVC timing advances. With a fixed IVC timing, higher engine speed results in a larger fluctuation amplitude and a longer fluctuation duration. To explain these phenomena, a numerical simulation model has been adopted. Results show that the IVC event causes pressure oscillations in both the cylinder and intake runner. At the same engine speed, the amplitude of the pressure oscillation decreases first and then increases as the IVC retards due to the change of gas flow direction. With the same intake temperature, the absolute time delay keeps constant at different engine speeds and IVC timings. The absolute time delay decreases as the intake temperature decreases. Based on the conclusions above, the potential methods to use the pressure oscillation are also discussed. An innovative engine valve timing detection method on the basis of in-cylinder pressure oscillation is presented.

Key words

Internal combustion engines Online measuring Valve events timing Pressure fluctuation CFD analysis 

Nomenclature

3D

three dimentional

c

speed of sound, m/s

CAD

crank angle degree

CAI

controlled auto-ignition

CFD

computational fluid dynamics

CFLmach

maximum Mach Courant Friedrichs-Lewy

CRe

effective compression ratio

Δx

grid length, m

Δt

time step, s

ΔT

time delay, s

FDD

fault detection and diagnosis

FFT

fast Fourier transformation

FNN

probabilistic neural networks

γ

adiabatic coefficient

HCCI

homogeneous compression charge ignition

IC

internal combustion

IVC

intake valve closure

PCCI

premixed compression charge ignition

R

the gas constant, 287 J/(kg·K)

SOC

start of combustion

VVA

variable valve actuation

WVD

Wigner-Ville distributions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Beccari, S., Pipitone, E. and Genchi, G. (2016). Knock onset prediction of propane, gasoline and their mixtures in spark ignition engines. J. Energy Institute 89, 1, 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bodisco, T., Reeves, R., Situ, R. and Brown, R. (2012). Bayesian models for the determination of resonant frequencies in a DI diesel engine. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 26, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bozza, F., De Bellis, V. and Teodosio, L. (2016). Potentials of cooled EGR and water injection for knock resistance and fuel consumption improvements of gasoline engines. Applied Energy, 169, 112–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brijesh, P. and Sreedhara, S. (2013). Exhaust emissions and its control methods in compression ignition engines: A review. Int. J. Automotive Technology 14, 2, 195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Clenci, A. C., Iorga-Simӑn, V., Deligant, M., Podevin, P., Descombes, G. and Niculescu, R. (2014). A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) study on the effects of operating an engine with low intake valve lift at idle corresponding speed. Energy, 71, 202–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Convergent Science, I. (2014). CONVERGE Version 2.2 Theory Manual. USA.Google Scholar
  7. Flett, J. and Bone, G. M. (2016). Fault detection and diagnosis of diesel engine valve trains. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 72-73, 316–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fog, T. L., Hansen, L. K., Larsen, J., Hansen, H. S., Madsen, L. B., Sorensen, P., Hansen, E. R. and Pedersen, P. S. (1999). On condition monitoring of exhaust valves in marine diesel engines. Neural Networks for Signal Processing IX: Proc. IEEE Signal Processing Society Workshop (Cat. No. 98TH8468). Madison, Wisconsin, USA.Google Scholar
  9. Ftoutou, E., Chouchane, M. and Besbès, N. (2011). Internal combustion engine valve clearance fault classification using multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis. Trans. Institute of Measurement and Control 34, 5, 566.577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hickling, R., Feldmaier, D. A., Chen, F. H. K. and Morel, J. S. (1983). Cavity resonances in engine combustion chambers and some applications. J. Acoustical Society of America 73, 4, 1170–1178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hickling, R., Hamburg, J. A., Feldmaier, D. A. and Chung, J. Y. (1979). Method of Measurement of Bulk Temperatures of Gas in Engine Cylinders. Patent No. US4164867A.Google Scholar
  12. Jia, M., Li, Y., Xie, M. and Wang, T. (2013). Numerical evaluation of the potential of late intake valve closing strategy for diesel PCCI (Premixed Charge Compression Ignition) engine in a wide speed and load range. Energy, 51, 203–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jia, M., Xie, M., Wang, T. and Peng, Z. (2011). The effect of injection timing and intake valve close timing on performance and emissions of diesel PCCI engine with a full engine cycle CFD simulation. Applied Energy 88, 9, 2967–2975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kyrtatos, P., Brückner, C. and Boulouchos, K. (2016). Cycle-to-cycle variations in diesel engines. Applied Energy, 171, 120–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Li, N., Xie, H., Chen, T., Li, L. and Zhao, H. (2013). The effects of intake backflow on in-cylinder situation and auto ignition in a gasoline controlled auto ignition engine. Applied Energy, 101, 756–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li, X., Gao, H., Zhao, L., Zhang, Z., He, X. and Liu, F. (2016). Combustion and emission performance of a split injection diesel engine in a double swirl combustion system. Energy, 114, 1135–1146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li, Y., Tse, P. W., Yang, X. and Yang, J. (2010). EMD-based fault diagnosis for abnormal clearance between contacting components in a diesel engine. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 24, 1, 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu, F. S., Sun, B. G., Zhu, H. R., Hu, T. G., Du, W., Li, X. R. and Zhang, Z. (2014). Development of performance and combustion system of Atkinson cycle internal combustion engine. Science China-Technological Sciences 57, 3, 471–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu, F., Shi, Z., Hua, Y., Kang, N., Li, Y. and Zhang, Z. (2018). Study on the intake valve close timing misalignment between the maximum volume efficiency and the none backflow on a single cylinder diesel engine. J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 141, 2, 021026–1–021026–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lu, X., Han, D. and Huang, Z. (2011). Fuel design and management for the control of advanced compression-ignition combustion modes. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 37, 6, 741–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luján, J. M., Guardiola, C., Pla, B. and Bares, P. (2016). Estimation of trapped mass by in-cylinder pressure resonance in HCCI engines. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 66–67, 862–874.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahrous, A. F. M., Potrzebowski, A., Wyszynski, M. L., Xu, H. M., Tsolakis, A. and Luszcz, P. (2009). A modelling study into the effects of variable valve timing on the gas exchange process and performance of a 4-valve DI Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. Energy Conversion and Management 50, 2, 393–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Milovanovic, N., Chen, R. and Turner, J. (2004). Influence of variable valve timings on the gas exchange process in a controlled auto-ignition engine. Proc. Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: J. Automobile Engineering 218, 5, 567–583.Google Scholar
  24. Nivesrangsan, P., Steel, J. A. and Reuben, R. L. (2005). AE mapping of engines for spatially located time series. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 19, 5, 1034–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nivesrangsan, P., Steel, J. A. and Reuben, R. L. (2007a). Acoustic emission mapping of diesel engines for spatially located time series - Part II: Spatial reconstitution. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 21, 2, 1084–1102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nivesrangsan, P., Steel, J. A. and Reuben, R. L. (2007b). Source location of acoustic emission in diesel engines. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 21, 2, 1103–1114. 5ai]Peng, Z. J. and Jia, M. (2009). Full engine cycle CFD investigation of effects of variable intake valve closing on diesel PCCI combustion and emissions. Energy Fuels 23, 12, 5855–5864.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pulkrabek, W. W. (1997). Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine. 2nd edn. Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.Google Scholar
  28. Reuben, R. L. (1998). The role of acoustic emission in industrial condition monitoring. Int. J. Comadem 1, 4, 35–46.Google Scholar
  29. Senecal, P. K., Richards, K. J., Pomraning, E., Yang, T., Dai, M. Z., McDavid, R. M., Patterson, M. A., Hou, S. and Shethaji, T. (2007). A new parallel cut-cell cartesian CFD code for rapid grid generation applied to incylinder diesel engine simulations. SAE Paper No. 2007-01-0159.Google Scholar
  30. Tougri, I., Colaço, M. J., Leiroz, A. J. K. and Melo, T. C. C. (2017). Knocking prediction in internal combustion engines via thermodynamic modeling: Preliminary results and comparison with experimental data. J. Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering 39, 1, 321–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vafamehr, H., Cairns, A., Sampson, O. and Koupaie, M. M. (2016). The competing chemical and physical effects of transient fuel enrichment on heavy knock in an optical spark ignition engine. Applied Energy, 179, 687–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walter, B., Pacaud, P. and Gatellier, B. (2008). Variable valve actuation systems for homogeneous diesel combustion: How interesting are they?. Oil & Gas Science and Technology - Rev. IFP 63, 4, 517–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wang, C., Zhang, Y. and Zhong, Z. (2008). Fault diagnosis for diesel valve trains based on time-frequency images. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 22, 8, 1981–1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu, W., Lin, T. R. and Tan, A. C. C. (2015). Normalization and source separation of acoustic emission signals for condition monitoring and fault detection of multicylinder diesel engines. Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 64–65, 479–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Xu, G. F., Jia, M., Li, Y. P., Xie, M. Z. and Su, W. H. (2017). Multi-objective optimization of the combustion of a heavy-duty diesel engine with Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) under a wide load range: (II) Detailed parametric, energy, and exergy analysis. Energy, 139, 247–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yang, X. F., Keum, S. and Kuo, T. W. (2016). Effect of valve opening/closing setup on computational fluid dynamics prediction of engine flows. J. Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power 138, 8, 081503–1–081503–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yao, M., Zheng, Z. and Liu, H. (2009). Progress and recent trends in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engines. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 35, 5, 398–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang, Q., Hao, Z., Zheng, X. and Yang, W. (2017). Characteristics and effect factors of pressure oscillation in multi-injection DI diesel engine at high-load conditions. Applied Energy, 195, 52–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© KSAE 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fushui Liu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Zhongjie Shi
    • 1
  • Yikai Li
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yang Hua
    • 1
  • Yanlin Chen
    • 1
  • Yongli Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Beijing Institute of TechnologySchool of Mechanical EngineeringBeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Electric Vehicle Collaborative Innovation CenterBeijingChina

Personalised recommendations