Advertisement

International Journal of Automotive Technology

, Volume 19, Issue 6, pp 1023–1032 | Cite as

Reduction in the Head Injury Level due to Junior High School Cyclists Wearing Helmets

  • Yasuhiro MatsuiEmail author
  • Shoko Oikawa
Article
  • 17 Downloads

Abstract

We assessed the effect of wearing a junior-high-school helmet when the frontal or lateral part of a helmet impacted the upper part and lower part of the A-pillar of a vehicle at 35 km/h (212 J). The head injury criterions (HICs) of the headform impactor without a helmet were respectively 4530 and 4937. In the case of the headform impactor wearing a junior-high-school helmet, the helmet reduced the HIC by 17.5 % and 9.9 % for impacts of the frontal part of the helmet and by 15.0 % and 4.0 % for impacts of the lateral part of the helmet. We also assessed the effect of wearing a junior-high-school helmet when the frontal part of the helmet impacted a road surface from a height of 1.5 m (66 J). The HIC of the headform impactor without a helmet was 6525. The HIC was reduced by 82.7 % when wearing a junior-high-school helmet. Both experiments show that, under a relatively low impact energy condition such as a road surface impact, wearing a junior-highschool helmet greatly reduces the head injury level. Meanwhile, under a relatively high-impact-energy condition such as impact against an A-pillar, wearing a junior-high-school helmet is ineffective in reducing the head injury level.

Key Words

Junior-high-school helmet Cyclist Head injury A-pillar impact Road surface impact 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Attewell, R. G., Glase, K. and McFadden, M. (2001). Bicycle helmet efficacy: A meta-analysis. Accident Analysis & Prevention 33, 3, 345–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Badea-Romero, A. and Lenard, J. (2013). Source of head injury for pedestrians and pedal cyclists: Striking vehicle or road?. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 50, 1140–1150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bambach, M. R., Mitchell, R. J., Grzebieta, R. H. and Olivier, J. (2013). The effectiveness of helmets in bicycle collisions with motor vehicles: A case-control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 53, 78–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ching, R. P., Thompson, D. C., Thompson, R. S., Thomas, D. J., Chilcott, W. C. and Rivara, F. P. (1997). Damage to bicycle helmets involved with crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 29, 5, 555–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Elvik, R. (2011). Publication bias and time-trend bias in meta-analysis of bicycle helmet efficacy: A re-analysis of Attewell, Blass and McFaden. Accident Analysis & Prevention 43, 3, 1245–1251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Eppinger, R., Sun, E., Bandak, F., Haffner, M., Khaewpong, N., Maltese, M., Kuppa, S., Nguyen, T., Takhounts, E., Tannous, R., Zhang, A. and Saul, R. (1999). Development of Improved Injury Criteria for the Assessment of Advanced Automotive Restraint Systems-II. DOT NHTSA Grant DTNH22-93-Y-17028.Google Scholar
  7. Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis of Japan (ITARDA) (2017). Annual Traffic Accident Report for 2016, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  8. Ito, D., Yamada, H., Oida, K. and Mizuno, K. (2014). Finite element analysis of kinematic behavior of cyclist and performance of cyclist helmet for human head injury in vehicle-to-cyclist collision. IRCOBI Conf., Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  9. Japan Automobile Standards Internationalization Center (JASIC) (2013). Test for Protection of Heads and Legs of Pedestrians, TRIAS18-J099(2)-01, Automobile Type Approval Handbook for Japanese Certification (CD).Google Scholar
  10. Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) (2007). Bicycle Helmet. JIS T 8134. http://kikakurui.com/t8/T8134-2007-01.htmlGoogle Scholar
  11. Karkhaneh, M., Rowe, B. H., Saunders, L. D., Voaklander, D. C. and Hagel, B. E. (2013). Trends in head injuries associated with mandatory bicycle helmet legislation targeting children and adolescents. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 59, 206–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Maki, T., Kajzer, J., Mizuno, K. and Sekine, Y. (2003). Comparative analysis of vehicle-bicyclist and vehiclepedestrian accidents in Japan. Accident Analysis & Prevention 35, 6, 927–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Matsui, Y. (2004). Crash characteristics and HIC values of pedestrian head impacts in front windshield area. J. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan 35, 1, 191–197.Google Scholar
  14. Matsui, Y., Doi, T., Oikawa, S. and Ando, K. (2013). Features of fatal pedestrian injuries in vehicle-topedestrian accidents in Japan. SAE Int. J. Transportation Safety 1, 2, 297–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Matsui, Y. and Oikawa, S. (2015). Risks of serious injuries and fatalities of cyclists associated with impact velocities of cars in car-cyclist accidents in Japan. Stapp Car Crash Journal, 59, 385–400.Google Scholar
  16. Matsui, Y. and Tanahashi, M. (2004). Development of JAMA-JARI pedestrian headform impactor in compliance with ISO and IHRA standards. Int. J. Crashworthiness 9, 2, 129–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. OGK Kabuto (2012). FIGO. Instruction Manual. Osaka, Japan.Google Scholar
  18. Oikawa, S., Matsui, Y., Wakabayashi, A., Gomei, S., Nakadate, H. and Aomura, S. (2016). Severity of cyclist head injuries caused by impacts with vehicle structure and road surface. J. Biomechanical Science and Engineering 11, 2, 15–00613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Peng, Y., Chen, Y., Yang, J., Otte, D. and Willinger, R. (2012). A study of pedestrian and bicyclist exposure to head injury in passenger car collisions based on accident data and simulations. Safety Science 50, 9, 1749–1759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Research Institute of Human Engineering for Quality Life (RIHEQL) (1997). Japanese Body Size Data 1992−1994, Shinko-Market Ltd. Osaka.Google Scholar
  21. Yamada, H., Ito, D. and Mizuno, K. (2014). Finite element analysis of behavior and injury of cyclists in car-tocyclist collision. J. Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan 46, 3, 639–644.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Vehicle Safety Research DepartmentNational Traffic Safety and Environment LaboratoryChofu, TokyoJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of System DesignTokyo Metropolitan UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations