Advertisement

Evaluating the Impact of Climate Change on Water Quality and Quantity in an Urban Watershed Using an Ensemble Approach

  • Nasrin Alamdari
  • David J. SampleEmail author
  • Andrew C. Ross
  • Zachary M. Easton
Article

Abstract

Considerable efforts are underway to restore watersheds and estuaries downstream impacted by urban development; however, climate change (CC) may be undermining them. Current methods are limited in their ability to predict hydrology and water quality with CC and assess its effect on the efficiency of stormwater control measures (SCMs). We developed a method using downscaled global climate models (GCMs) from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) to project precipitation and temperatures; these were used to force a Storm Water Management Model (SWMM). Three scenarios, a historical and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP 4.5 and 8.5) with five GCMs, were used to produce ensemble results. All GCMs in both RCP scenarios projected increases in precipitation and temperature compared to historical conditions. Both RCPs exhibited their largest increases in precipitation, streamflow, total suspended solids (TSS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) loads in the winter, summer exhibited the largest increase in temperature. Median loads of TSS, TN, and TP increased 3.1%, 2.5%, and 9.9%, respectively, for RCP 4.5, and increased 3.8%, 3.1%, and 10.4%, respectively, for RCP 8.5. Median reductions in TSS, TN, and TP SCM efficiency for RCP 4.5 were projected to be 6%, 7%, and 11%, respectively; and 11%, 12%, and 17% for RCP 8.5, respectively. Thus, it is likely that additional efforts will be needed to meet water quality goals in the future. Methods such as these can help create climate resilient watershed improvement strategies and guide urban stormwater planning against likely future changes as a result of CC.

Keywords

Climate change (CC) Hydrologic model Global climate models (GCMs) Ensemble approach Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves Dry duration curves 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors express their appreciation to Ray Najjar of Penn State University, John Jastram of the U.S. Geological Survey, Darold Burdick and Daniel Habete of Fairfax County, and Celso Ferreira of George Mason University, who facilitated this research. Support for this research was provided by the National Science Foundation, Water Sustainability and Climate WSC-Category 1 Collaborative Project: Coupled Multi-Scale Economic, Hydrologic and Estuarine Modeling to assess Impacts of Climate Change on Water Quality Management, Grant #23032. Funding for this work was provided in part by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and the Hatch program, Project S1063, of the National Institute of Food and Agriculture.

Supplementary material

12237_2019_649_Fig8_ESM.png (82 kb)
Fig. A1

(PNG 81 kb)

12237_2019_649_MOESM1_ESM.tif (355 kb)
High resolution image (TIF 354 kb)
12237_2019_649_Fig9_ESM.png (108 kb)
Fig. A2

(PNG 108 kb)

12237_2019_649_MOESM2_ESM.tif (370 kb)
High resolution image (TIF 369 kb)
12237_2019_649_Fig10_ESM.png (583 kb)
Fig. A3

(PNG 582 kb)

12237_2019_649_MOESM3_ESM.tif (2.1 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 2180 kb)
12237_2019_649_Fig11_ESM.png (527 kb)
Fig. A4

(PNG 527 kb)

12237_2019_649_MOESM4_ESM.tif (2.1 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 2158 kb)
12237_2019_649_Fig12_ESM.png (529 kb)
Fig. A5

(PNG 528 kb)

12237_2019_649_MOESM5_ESM.tif (2.1 mb)
High resolution image (TIF 2150 kb)

References

  1. Ahmadisharaf, E., Tajrishy, M., & Alamdari, N. (2016). Integrating flood hazard into site selection of detention basins using spatial multi-criteria decision-making. Journal of environmental planning and management, 59(8): 1397-1417.Google Scholar
  2. Alamdari, N. (2018). Modeling Climate Change Impacts on the Effectiveness of Stormwater Control Measures in Urban Watersheds (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).Google Scholar
  3. Alamdari, N., and D.J. Sample. 2019. A multiobjective simulation-optimization tool for assisting in urban watershed restoration planning. Journal of Cleaning Production 213: 251–261.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.12.108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alamdari, N., D. Sample, P. Steinberg, A. Ross, and Z. Easton. 2017. Assessing the effects of climate change on water quantity and quality in an urban watershed using a calibrated stormwater model. Water 9: 464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alberti, M., D. Booth, K. Hill, B. Coburn, C. Avolio, S. Coe, and D. Spirandelli. 2007. The impact of urban patterns on aquatic ecosystems: an empirical analysis in Puget lowland sub-basins. Landscape and Urban Planning 80: 345–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bakke, P.D., and M.R. Pyles. 1997. Predictive model for nitrate load in the bull run watershed, Oregon 1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33: 897–906.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balascio, C.C., and W.C. Lucas. 2009. A survey of storm-water management water quality regulations in four Mid-Atlantic States. Journal of Environmental Management 90 (1): 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bosch, N.S., M.A. Evans, D. Scavia, and J.D. Allan. 2014. Interacting effects of climate change and agricultural BMPs on nutrient runoff entering Lake Erie. Journal of Great Lakes Research 40: 581–589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Butcher, J.B. 2003. Buildup, washoff, and event mean concentrations. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 39: 1521–1528.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-1688.2003.tb04436.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cameron, D. 2006. An application of the UKCIP02 climate change scenarios to flood estimation by continuous simulation for a gauged catchment in the northeast of Scotland, UK (with uncertainty). Journal of Hydrology 328: 212–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. CCAFS, 2014. Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security [WWW Document]. URL http://www.ccafs-climate.org/data_bias_correction/. Accessed June 2017
  12. Chang, H., B.M. Evans, and D.R. Easterling. 2001. The effects of climate change on stream flow and nutrient loading 1. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37: 973–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Charbeneau, R.J., and M.E. Barrett. 1998. Evaluation of methods for estimating stormwater pollutant loads. Water Environment Research 70: 1295–1302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, J., F.P. Brissette, D. Chaumont, and M. Braun. 2013. Finding appropriate bias correction methods in downscaling precipitation for hydrologic impact studies over North America. Water Resources Research 49: 4187–4205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dent, S., Hanna, R.H., Wright, L.T., 2004. Automated calibration using optimization techniques with SWMM runoff.Google Scholar
  16. Drake, A.A., and K.Y. Lee. 1989. Geologic map of the Vienna Quadrangle, Fairfax County, Virginia, and Montgomery County, Maryland. U.S. Washington, DC: Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  17. Eghdamirad, S., F. Johnson, and A. Sharma. 2017. How reliable are GCM simulations for different atmospheric variables? Clim. Change 145: 237–248.Google Scholar
  18. Fairfax County, 2007. Difficult Run Watershed Management Plan.Google Scholar
  19. Feng, D., E. Beighley, R. Raoufi, J. Melack, Y. Zhao, S. Iacobellis, and D. Cayan. 2019. Propagation of future climate conditions into hydrologic response from coastal southern California watersheds. Climate Change 153: 199–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fletcher, T.D.D., H. Andrieu, and P. Hamel. 2013. Understanding, management and modelling of urban hydrology and its consequences for receiving waters: a state of the art. Advances in Water Resources 51: 261–279.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2012.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fu, Q., C.Q. Yin, and Y. Ma. 2005. Phosphorus removal by the multipond system sediments receiving agricultural drainage in a headstream watershed. Journal of Environmental Sciences 17: 404–408.Google Scholar
  22. Gao, H., Tang, Q., Shi, X., Zhu, C., Bohn, T., Su, F., Pan, M., Sheffield, J., Lettenmaier, D., Wood, E., 2010. Water budget record from Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model.Google Scholar
  23. Giuffria, J. M., Bosch, D. J., Taylor, D. B., & Alamdari, N. (2017). Costs of water quality goals under climate change in urbanizing watersheds: difficult run, Virginia. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, 143(9): 04017055.Google Scholar
  24. Goodrich, D.C., I.S. Bums, C.L. Unkrich, D.J. Semmens, D.P. Guertin, M. Hernandez, S. Yatheendradas, J.R. Kennedy, and L.R. Levick. 2012. KINEROS 2/AGWA: Model use, calibration, and validation. Transactions of the ASABE 55: 1561–1574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Green, W.H., and G.A. Ampt. 1911. Studies on Soil Phyics. Journal of Agricultural Science 4: 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Groisman, P.Y., R.W. Knight, T.R. Karl, D.R. Easterling, B. Sun, and J.H. Lawrimore. 2004. Contemporary changes of the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: Trends derived from in situ observations. Journal of Hydrometeorology 5: 64–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gudmundsson, L., J.B. Bremnes, J.E. Haugen, and T. Engen-Skaugen. 2012. Technical Note: Downscaling RCM precipitation to the station scale using statistical transformations–a comparison of methods. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 16: 3383–3390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gupta, H.V., S. Sorooshian, and P.O. Yapo. 1999. Status of automatic calibration for hydrologic models: comparison with multilevel expert calibration. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 4: 135–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hathaway, J.M., R.A. Brown, J.S. Fu, and W.F. Hunt. 2014. Bioretention function under climate change scenarios in North Carolina, USA. Journal of Hydrology 519: 503–511.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.07.037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hatt, B.E., T.D. Fletcher, C.J. Walsh, and S.L. Taylor. 2004. The influence of urban density and drainage infrastructure on the concentrations and loads of pollutants in small streams. Environmental Management 34 (1): 112–124.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00267-004-0221-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hayhoe, K., C.P. Wake, T.G. Huntington, L. Luo, M.D. Schwartz, J. Sheffield, E. Wood, B. Anderson, J. Bradbury, A. DeGaetano, T.J. Troy, and D. Wolfe. 2007. Past and future changes in climate and hydrological indicators in the US Northeast. Climate Dynamics 28: 381–407.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-006-0187-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hayhoe, K., C. Wake, B. Anderson, X.-Z. Liang, E. Maurer, J. Zhu, J. Bradbury, A. DeGaetano, A.M. Stoner, and D. Wuebbles. 2008. Regional climate change projections for the Northeast USA. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 13: 425–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hirschman, D., K. Collins, and T.R. Schueler. 2008. Technical Memorandum: The Runoff Reduction Method. Ellicott City: Center for Watershed Protection & Chesapeake Stormwater Network.Google Scholar
  34. Howarth, R.W., D.P. Swaney, E.W. Boyer, R. Marino, N. Jaworski, and C. Goodale. 2006. The influence of climate on average nitrogen export from large watersheds in the Northeastern United States. In Nitrogen Cycling in the Americas: Natural and Anthropogenic Influences and Controls, ed. L.A. Martinelli and R.W. Howarth, 163–186. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Huber, W.C., Dickinson, R.E., Rosener, L.A., Aldrich, J.A., 1988. Stormwater Management Model User’s Manual, Version 4.Google Scholar
  36. Huntington, T. G. (2006). Evidence for intensification of the global water cycle: review and synthesis. Journal of Hydrology, 319(1-4), 83-95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Imteaz, M.A., A. Shanableh, A. Rahman, and A. Ahsan. 2011. Optimisation of rainwater tank design from large roofs: A case study in Melbourne, Australia. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 55: 1022–1029.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.05.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Imteaz, M.A., V. Uddameri, and A. Ahsan. 2016. Numerical model for the transport and degradation of pollutants through wetlands. International Journal of Water 10: 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. IPCC. 2014. Climate Change 2014–impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: Regional Aspects. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Jacobson, C.R. 2011. Identification and quantification of the hydrological impacts of imperviousness in urban catchments: a review. J. Environ. Manage 92: 1438–1448.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.01.018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. James, W., and R.C. James. 1998. Users Guide to SWMM4 Runoff and Supporting Modules-Hydrology. Guelph: Computational Hydraulics International.Google Scholar
  42. James, W., L.A. Rossman, and W.R.C. James. 2010. User’s guide to SWMM 5. Guelph: Computational Hydraulics International.Google Scholar
  43. Jennings, D.B., S.T. Jarnagin, and S. Taylor Jarnagin. 2002. Changes in anthropogenic impervious surfaces, precipitation and daily streamflow discharge: a historical perspective in a mid-atlantic subwatershed. Landscape Ecology 17: 471–489.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021211114125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Karl, T.R., J.M. Melillo, T.C. Peterson, and S.J. Hassol. 2009. Global climate change impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kaushal, S.S., and K.T. Belt. 2012. The urban watershed continuum: evolving spatial and temporal dimensions. Urban Ecosystems 15: 409–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Krysanova, V., T. Vetter, S. Eisner, S. Huang, I. Pechlivanidis, M. Strauch, A. Gelfan, R. Kumar, V. Aich, and B. Arheimer. 2017. Intercomparison of regional-scale hydrological models and climate change impacts projected for 12 large river basins worldwide—a synthesis. Environmental Research Letters 12: 105002.  https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/aa8359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. LeBoutillier, D.W., J.A. Kells, and G.J. Putz. 2000. Prediction of pollutant load in stormwater runoff from an urban residential area. Canadian Water Resources Journal 25: 343–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lee, T.M., W. Jetz, L.T. Ming, and J. Walter. 2008. Future battlegrounds for conservation under global change. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 275 (1640): 1261–1270.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2007.1732.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li, H., Sheffield, J., Wood, E.F., 2010. Bias correction of monthly precipitation and temperature fields from Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 models using equidistant quantile matching. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmosphere 115.Google Scholar
  50. Liu, J., Sample, D., 2013. Frequency analysis for precipitation events and dry durations of virginia.Google Scholar
  51. Milly, P.C.D., J. Betancourt, M. Falkenmark, R.M. Hirsch, Z.W. Kundzewicz, D.P. Lettenmaier, and R.J. Stouffer. 2008. Stationarity is dead: whither water management? Science (80-. ) 319: 573–LP-574.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1151915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Moglen, G.E., and G.E. Rios Vidal. 2014. Climate change and storm water infrastructure in the mid-Atlantic region: Design mismatch coming? Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 19: 4014026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Moore, M.V., M.L. Pace, J.R. Mather, P.S. Murdoch, R.W. Howarth, C.L. Folt, C.Y. Chen, H.F. Hemond, P.A. Flebbe, and C.T. Driscoll. 1997. Potential effects of climate change on freshwater ecosystems of the New England/Mid-Atlantic region. Hydrologcal Processess 11: 925–947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Moss, R.H., J.A. Edmonds, K.A. Hibbard, M.R. Manning, S.K. Rose, D.P. Van Vuuren, T.R. Carter, S. Emori, M. Kainuma, T. Kram, G.A. Meehl, J.F.B. Mitchell, N. Nakicenovic, K. Riahi, S.J. Smith, R.J. Stouffer, A.M. Thomson, J.P. Weyant, and T.J. Wilbanks. 2010. The next generation of scenarios for climate change research and assessment. Nature 463: 747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mote, P.W., and E.P. Salathé. 2010. Future climate in the Pacific Northwest. Climate Change 102: 29–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Murphy, R.R., W.M. Kemp, and W.P. Ball. 2011. Long-term trends in Chesapeake Bay seasonal hypoxia, stratification, and nutrient loading. Estuaries and Coasts 34: 1293–1309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Najjar, R.G., C.R. Pyke, M.B. Adams, D. Breitburg, C. Hershner, M. Kemp, R. Howarth, M.R. Mulholland, M. Paolisso, D. Secor, K. Sellner, D. Wardrop, and R. Wood. 2010. Potential climate-change impacts on the Chesapeake Bay. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 86: 1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecss.2009.09.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Nakićenović, N., and R. Swart. 2000. Special report on emission scenarios. Chang: Intergov. Panel Clim.Google Scholar
  59. Nash, J.E., and J.V. Sutcliffe. 1970. River flow forecasting through conceptual models part I—a discussion of principles. Journal of Hydrology 10: 282–290.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1694(70)90255-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Neff, R., H. Chang, C.G. Knight, R.G. Najjar, B. Yarnal, and H.A. Walker. 2000. Impact of climate variation and change on Mid-Atlantic Region hydrology and water resources. Climate Research 14: 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson, E.J., and D.B. Booth. 2002. Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed land-use watershed. Journal of Hydrology 264: 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. NRCS, 2015. Web Soil Survey [WWW Document]. URL http://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/.. Accessed September 2016
  63. Pachauri, R. K., Allen, M. R., Barros, V. R., Broome, J., Cramer, W., Christ, R., ... & Dubash, N. K. (2014). Climate change 2014: synthesis report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the fifth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (p. 151). Ipcc.Google Scholar
  64. Pierce, D.W., D.R. Cayan, E.P. Maurer, J.T. Abatzoglou, and K.C. Hegewisch. 2015. Improved bias correction techniques for hydrological simulations of climate change. Journal of Hydrometeorology 16: 2421–2442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Pyke, C., M.P. Warren, T. Johnson, J. LaGro, J. Scharfenberg, P. Groth, R. Freed, W. Schroeer, and E. Main. 2011. Assessment of low impact development for managing stormwater with changing precipitation due to climate change. Landscape and Urban Planning 103: 166–173.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.07.006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rossman, L.A., 2004. Storm Water Management Model User’s Manual, Version 5.0. Cincinatti, OH. https://doi.org/https://www.epa.gov/water-research/storm-water-management-model-swmm. Accessed March 2015
  67. Rossman, L.A., 2015. SWMM5 Water Quality Continuity Error.Google Scholar
  68. Sage, J., Berthier, E., Gromaire, M.-C., 2015. Stormwater Management Criteria for On-Site Pollution Control: A Comparative Assessment of International Practices. Environmental Management 1–15.Google Scholar
  69. Sample, D.J., Wang, C.-Y., Grizzard, T.J., 2012. Assessing the Potential of Floating Treatment Wetlands for Meeting TMDLs. World Water Environ. Conf.Google Scholar
  70. Sample, D., W. Lucas, T. Janeski, R. Roseen, D. Powers, J. Freeborn, and L. Fox. 2014. Greening Richmond, USA: a sustainable urban drainage demonstration project. Proceedings of the Institutuin of Civil Engineering 167: 88.Google Scholar
  71. Schaefer, S., and M. Alber. 2007. Temporal and spatial trends in nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the watershed of the Altamaha River, Georgia, USA. Biogeochemistry 86 (3): 231–249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-007-9155-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Schueler, T., 2011. Ponds in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. In Chesapeake Stormwater Partnership Retreat. Shepherdstown, WV.Google Scholar
  73. Semadeni-Davies, A. 2006. Winter performance of an urban stormwater pond in southern Sweden. Hydrological Processess 20: 165–182.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.5909.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Semadeni-Davies, A. 2012. Implications of climate and urban development on the design of sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS). Journal of Water and Climate Change 3: 239–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shapiro, S.S., and M.B. Wilk. 1965. An analysis of variance test for normality (complete samples). Biometrika 52: 591–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Sharma, A.K., L. Vezzaro, H. Birch, K. Arnbjerg-Nielsen, and P.S. Mikkelsen. 2016. Effect of climate change on stormwater runoff characteristics and treatment efficiencies of stormwater retention ponds: a case study from Denmark using TSS and Cu as indicator pollutants. Springerplus 5: 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sheffield, J., A.P. Barrett, B. Colle, D. Nelun Fernando, R. Fu, K.L. Geil, Q. Hu, J. Kinter, S. Kumar, B. Langenbrunner, K. Lombardo, L.N. Long, E. Maloney, A. Mariotti, J.E. Meyerson, K.C. Mo, J. David Neelin, S. Nigam, Z. Pan, T. Ren, A. Ruiz-Barradas, Y.L. Serra, A. Seth, J.M. Thibeault, J.C. Stroeve, Z. Yang, and L. Yin. 2013. North American Climate in CMIP5 Experiments. Part I: Evaluation of Historical Simulations of Continental and Regional Climatology. Journal of Climate 26: 9209–9245.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00592.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. U.S. EPA, 2010. Chesapeake Bay Total Maximum Daily Load for Nitrogen, Phosphorous, and Sediment. In USEPA Region III. Philadelphia, PA.Google Scholar
  79. USEPA. 1983. Results of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. Washington, D.C.: Water Planning Division.Google Scholar
  80. USEPA. 2010. Guidance for Federal Land Management in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Chapter 3. Urban and Suburban. U.S. Washington, DC: Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  81. Vollertsen, J., Åstebøl, S.O., Coward, J.E., Fageraas, T., Madsen, H.I., Hvitved-Jacobsen, T., Nielsen, A.H., 2007. Monitoring and modelling the performance of a wet pond for treatment of highway runoff in cold climates. In Highway and Urban Environment. Springer, pp. 499–509.Google Scholar
  82. Wagena, M.B., and Z.M. Easton. 2018. Agricultural conservation practices can help mitigate the impact of climate change. Science of the Total Environment 635: 132–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Walsh, C.J., H.R. Allison, J.W. Feminella, P.D. Cottingham, P.M. Groffman, and R.P.M. Ii. 2005. The urban stream syndrome: current knowledge and the search for a cure. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 24: 706–723.  https://doi.org/10.1899/04-028.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Wang, L., and W. Chen. 2014. Equiratio cumulative distribution function matching as an improvement to the equidistant approach in bias correction of precipitation. Atmospheric Science Letters 15: 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Wang, M., D. Zhang, A. Adhityan, W.J. Ng, J. Dong, and S.K. Tan. 2016. Assessing cost-effectiveness of bioretention on stormwater in response to climate change and urbanization for future scenarios. Journal of Hydrology 543: 423–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wanielista, M.P., and Y.A. Yousef. 1993. Design and analysis of an irrigation pond using urban stormwater runoff. In Engineering Hydrology, 724–729. ASCE.Google Scholar
  87. Warrick, J.A., J.M. Melack, and B.M. Goodridge. 2015. Sediment yields from small, steep coastal watersheds of California. Journal of Hydrology Regional Studies 4: 516–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Wood, A.W., L.R. Leung, V. Sridhar, and D.P. Lettenmaier. 2004. Hydrologic implications of dynamical and statistical approaches to downscaling climate model outputs. Climate Change 62: 189–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Yazdi, M. N., Sample, D. J., Scott, D., Owen, J. S., Ketabchy, M., & Alamdari, N. (2019). Water quality characterization of storm and irrigation runoff from a container nursery. Science of The Total Environment, 667: 166-178.Google Scholar
  90. Zahmatkesh, Z., M. Karamouz, E. Goharian, and S.J. Burian. 2014. Analysis of the effects of climate change on urban storm water runoff using statistically downscaled precipitation data and a change factor approach. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 20: 5014022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Zhang, Q., D.C. Brady, and W.P. Ball. 2013. Long-term seasonal trends of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment load from the non-tidal Susquehanna River Basin to Chesapeake Bay. Science of the Total Environment 452–453: 208–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Coastal and Estuarine Research Federation 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological System EngineeringVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityBlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Civil and Environmental EngineeringColorado School of MinesGoldenUSA
  3. 3.Department of MeteorologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations