Partitioning of Cd, Zn and Fe in the Tissues and Cytosols of Blood Cockles (Anadara granosa) from the Gulf of Thailand
Anadara granosa is a bivalve blood cockle occurring abundantly in tropical estuarine intertidal sediments. The accumulation of Cd, Zn and Fe and their partitioning at the sub-cellular level in the cytosol has been investigated in the gills, digestive gland, body and foot of A. granosa from seven estuaries in the Gulf of Thailand. Cadmium and Zn were bioaccumulated predominantly in the gills with smaller concentrations distributed equally throughout the other tissues. Iron was present at relatively low concentrations in gills but was higher, and more evenly distributed, in the digestive gland, body and foot. The concentrations of metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) were found to be in the range 1–11 mg g−1 (dry weight) with the highest values being in the digestive gland at all sites. Partitioning of the metals in the cytosols between low molecular weight (LMW) compounds, MTLP and high molecular weight compounds (HMW) indicated that 16–39% of total Cd, 6.5–15% of total Fe and < 6% of total Zn were bound with MTLP. However, 23–27% of total Zn was bound with the HMW fraction, ascribed potentially to its association with the blood pigment haemoglobin (Hb). The metal-handling strategy, involving Zn, is likely important to blood cockles in supporting their uptake of dissolved oxygen in under-saturated tropical waters.
KeywordsBioaccumulation Blood cockles Gulf of Thailand Metals Sediments Cytosols Metallothionein-like-proteins
Dr. C. Rattikunsukha thanks the Ministry of Resources and Environment, Bangkok, Thailand for funds to carry out this research and to colleagues at the Pollution Control Department for field and laboratory support. Professor G.E. Millward thanks the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) for a Visiting Scholarship to Walailak University, Thailand. Dr. W. Langston is grateful to the Marine Biological Association for an Associate Fellowship and the facilities to carry out this work.
- CCME. 1992. Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment. Task Force on Water Quality Guidelines of the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Eco-Health, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
- FAO Yearbook. 2016. FAO Fishery and Aquaculture Statistics 2014. Rome, Italy.Google Scholar
- Giguére, A., Y. Couillard, P.G.C. Campbell, O. Perceval, L. Hare, B. Pinel-Alloul, and J. Pellerin. 2003. Steady state distribution of metals amongst metallothionein and other cytosolic ligands and links to cytotoxicity in bivalves living along a polymetallic gradient. Aquatic Toxicology 64 (2): 185–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Pengthamkeerati, P., N. Kormkanitnan, S. Sawangarreruks, N. Wanichacheva, C. Wainiphithapong, and N. Sananwai. 2013. Assessment of heavy metals in sediments of the Don Hoi area in the Mae Klong estuary, Thailand. Journal of Environmental Science & Health, Part A, Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering 48: 1356–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sany, S.B.T., R. Hashim, M. Rezayi, A. Salleh, M.A. Rahman, O. Safan, and A. Sasekumar. 2014. Human health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from consumption of blood cockles and exposure to contaminated sediments and water along the Klang Strait, Malaysia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 84 (1-2): 268–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Serra, R., E. Crapené, A.C. Marcantonio, and G. Isani. 1995. Cadmium accumulation and Cd-binding proteins in the bivalve Scapharca inaequivalvis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 11C: 165–174.Google Scholar
- Thillart, van den G., van G. Lieshout, K. Storey, P. Cortesi, and de A. Zwaan. 1992. Influence of long-term hypoxia on the energy metabolism of the haemoglobin-containing bivalve Scapharca inaequivalvis critical O2 levels for metabolic depression. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 162 (4): 297–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wijaya, A.R., A.K. Ouchi, K. Tanaka, M.D. Cohen, S. Sirirattanachai, R. Shinjo, and S. Ohde. 2013. Evaluation of heavy metal contents and Pb isotopic compositions in the Chao Phraya river sediments: implications for anthropogenic inputs from urbanised areas, Bangkok. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 126-127: 45–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Yap, C.K., Y. Hatta, F.B. Edward, and S.G. Tan. 2008. Comparison of heavy metal concentrations (Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni and Zn) in the shells and different soft tissues of Anadara granosa collected from Jeram, Kuala Juru and Kuala Kurau, Peninsular Malaysia. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agriculture 31: 205–215.Google Scholar