Advertisement

The Economic and Biological Benefits of Non-wood Forest Products to Local Communities in Iran

  • Sajad GhanbariEmail author
  • Seyed Mahdi Heshmatol Vaezin
  • Taghi Shamekhi
  • Ivan L. Eastin
  • Nataša Lovrić
  • Matthew M. Aghai
Original Article
  • 26 Downloads

ABSTRACT

This study estimates the value per hectare of the Arasbaran deciduous forest based on returns from 17 fruit-providing species and mapping their economic value. We also studied the main influencing social drivers of collecting non-wood forest products (NWFPs). A biological inventory was carried out for all fruit-providing trees within the 6,484 hectares (ha) with registration of the geographical position of trees. Based on total fruit produced annually per hectare and the market price of each species, the economic value of each species in terms of the fruit produced was calculated and depicted. Results showed that the distribution area of fruit-providing species was about 10 percent (684 ha) of the studied forest area. In total, the annual sustainable production of all species was 52.6 thousand kilograms. The economic value varied from USD 6 to USD 983 per ha in different areas. The revenue of collected fruit-providing species varied from USD 0.9 to USD 14,903 per year for all involved households. The average contribution of NWFP income to household income was 21 percent. The collection of NWFPs had a negative correlation with the education of the household head, opportunity cost, and household wealth; on the other hand, NWFP collection had a positive relation with fruit price and yield. Forest management strategies can focus on the areas with the highest economic value. This research can help inform decision-makers regarding the selection of eligible forest areas for conservation and enforcement of regulations.

Key words

Annual sustainable production economic value map fruit-providing species forest management strategies ethnobotany 

Literature Cited

  1. Adam, Y. O., J. Pretzsch, and D. Pettenella. 2013. Contribution of non-timber forest products livelihood strategies to rural development in drylands of Sudan: Potentials and failures. Agricultural Systems 117:90–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alijanpour, A. 2014. Effect of physiographical factors on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of Rhus coriaria L. natural stands in Arasbaran region. Iranian Journal of Forest 5(4):431-442.Google Scholar
  3. Amiri, M. S. and M. R. Joharchi. 2013. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran. Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 3(3):254.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Avocèvou-Ayisso, C., B. Sinsin, A. Adégbidi, G. Dossou, and P. Van Damme. 2009. Sustainable use of non-timber forest products: Impact of fruit harvesting on Pentadesma butyracea regeneration and financial analysis of its products trade in Benin. Forest Ecology and Management 257(9): 1930–1938.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babulo, B., B. Muys, F. Nega, E. Tollens, J. Nyssen, J. Deckers, and E. Mathijs. 2009. The economic contribution of forest resource use to rural livelihoods in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics 11(2):109–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. ———, B. Muys, and E. Mathijs. 2006. Economic valuation methods of forest rehabilitation in exclosures. Journal of Drylands 1(2):165-170.Google Scholar
  7. Cai, M., D. Pettenella, and E. Vidale. 2011. Income generation from wild mushrooms in marginal rural areas. Forest Policy and Economics 13(3): 221-226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coulibaly-Lingani, P., M. Tigabu, P. Savadogo, P.-C. Oden, and J.-M. Ouadba. 2009. Determinants of access to forest products in southern Burkina Faso. Forest Policy and Economics 11(7): 516-524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Croitoru, L. 2007. Valuing the non-timber forest products in the Mediterranean region. Ecological Economics 63(4): 768–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Damnyag, L., T. Tyynelä, M. Appiah, O. Saastamoinen, and A. Pappinen. 2011. Economic cost of deforestation in semi-deciduous forests—A case of two forest districts in Ghana. Ecological Economics 70(12):2503–2510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dejene, T., M. Lemenih, and F. Bongers. 2013. Manage or convert Boswellia woodlands? Can frankincense production payoff? Journal of Arid Environments 89:77–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delazar, A., S. Lasheni, F. Fathi-Azad, L. Nahar, M. M. Rahman, S. Asnaashari, M. Mojarab, and S. D. Sarker. 2010. Free radical scavenging flavonol 3-O-glycosides from the leaves of Ribes biebersteinii Berl. Records of Natural Products 4:96-100.Google Scholar
  13. Eroğlu, H., U. Ö. Öztürk, T. Sönmez, F. Tilki, and E. Akkuzu. 2009. The impacts of timber harvesting techniques on residual trees, seedlings, and timber products in natural oriental spruce forests. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4(3):220–224.Google Scholar
  14. Fu, Y., J. Chen, H. Guo, A. Chen, J. Cui, and H. Hu. 2009. The role of non-timber forest products during agroecosystem shift in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China. Forest Policy and Economics 11(1):18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ghanbari, S., S. M. H. Vaezin, T. Shamekhi, and I. L. Eastin. 2014. Market expansion’s influence on the harvesting of non-wood forest products in the Arasbaran forests of Iran. The Forestry Chronicle 90(5):599–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gould, K., A. F. Howard, and G. Rodriguez. 1998. Sustainable production of non-timber forest products: Natural dye extraction from El Cruce Dos Aguadas, Peten, Guatemala. Forest Ecology and Management 111(1):69–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Heubach, K., R. Wittig, E.-A. Nuppenau, and K. Hahn. 2011. The economic importance of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) for livelihood maintenance of rural west African communities: A case study from northern Benin. Ecological Economics 70(11):1991–2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Illukpitiya, P. and J. F. Yanagida. 2010. Farming vs forests: Trade-off between agriculture and the extraction of non-timber forest products. Ecological Economics 69(10):1952–1963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kainer, K. A., L. H. Wadt, and C. L. Staudhammer. 2007. Explaining variation in Brazil nut fruit production. Forest Ecology and Management 250(3):244–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kamanga, P., P. Vedeld, and E. Sjaastad. 2009. Forest incomes and rural livelihoods in Chiradzulu District, Malawi. Ecological Economics 68(3):613–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kar, S. P. and M. G. Jacobson. 2012. NTFP income contribution to household economy and related socio-economic factors: Lessons from Bangladesh. Forest Policy and Economics 14(1):136–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mahapatra, A. K. and D. D. Tewari. 2005. Importance of non-timber forest products in the economic valuation of dry deciduous forests of India. Forest Policy and Economics 7(3):455–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mamo, G., E. Sjaastad, and P. Vedeld. 2007. Economic dependence on forest resources: A case from Dendi District, Ethiopia. Forest Policy and Economics 9(8):916–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Paumgarten, F. and C. Shackleton. 2009. Wealth differentiation in household use and trade in non-timber forest products in South Africa. Ecological Economics 68(12):2950–2959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Peters, C. M., A. H. Gentry, and R. O. Mendelsohn. 1989. Valuation of an Amazonian rainforest. Nature 339(6227):655.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pourbabaei, H. and T. Haghgooy. 2013. Effect of physiographical factors on tree species diversity (case study: Kandelat Forest Park). Iranian Journal of Forest and Poplar Research 21(2):243-255.Google Scholar
  27. Rai, N. D. and C. F. Uhl. 2004. Forest product use, conservation and livelihoods: The case of Uppage fruit harvest in the Western Ghats, India. Conservation and Society 2(2):289.Google Scholar
  28. Sagheb-Talebi, K., T. Sajedi, and M. Pourhashemi. 2014. Forests of Iran: A treasure from the past, a hope for the future. Dordrecht: Springer Science+Business Media.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. ———, T. Sajedi, and F. Yazdian. 2004. Forests of Iran. Tehran: Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands.Google Scholar
  30. Saha, D. and R. Sundriyal. 2012. Utilization of non-timber forest products in humid tropics: Implications for management and livelihood. Forest Policy and Economics 14(1):28–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schaafsma, M., S. Morse-Jones, P. Posen, R. Swetnam, A. Balmford, I. Bateman, N. D. Burgess, S. Chamshama, B. Fisher, and T. Freeman. 2014. The importance of local forest benefits: Economic valuation of non-timber forest products in the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania. Global Environmental Change 24:295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ———, S. Morse-Jones, P. Posen, R. Swetnam, A. Balmford, I. Bateman, N. D. Burgess, S. Chamshama, B. Fisher, and R. Green. 2012. Towards transferable functions for extraction of non-timber forest products: A case study on charcoal production in Tanzania. Ecological Economics 80:48–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Shackleton, C. M. and A. K. Pandey. 2013. Positioning non-timber forest products on the development agenda. Forest Policy and Economics 38:1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ———, ———, and T. Ticktin. 2015. Ecological sustainability for non-timber forest products: Dynamics and case studies of harvesting. In: Ecological sustainability for non-timber forest products, C. Shackleton, Pandey, and Ticktin, eds., 260-278. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Shone, B. M. and J. L. Caviglia-Harris. 2006. Quantifying and comparing the value of non-timber forest products in the Amazon. Ecological Economics 58(2):249–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sinha, A. and K. S. Bawa. 2002. Harvesting techniques, hemiparasites and fruit production in two non-timber forest tree species in south India. Forest Ecology and Management 168(1):289–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Snook, L. K., L. Cámara-Cabrales, and M. J. Kelty. 2005. Six years of fruit production by mahogany trees ( Swietenia macrophylla King): Patterns of variation and implications for sustainability. Forest Ecology and Management 206(1):221–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Soltani, A., A. Angelsen, T. Eid, M. S. N. Naieni, and T. Shamekhi. 2012. Poverty, sustainability, and household livelihood strategies in Zagros, Iran. Ecological Economics 79:60–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ticktin, T. 2004. The ecological implications of harvesting non-timber forest products. Journal of Applied Ecology 41(1):11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vedeld, P., A. Angelsen, J. Bojö, E. Sjaastad, and G. Kobugabe Berg. 2007. Forest environmental incomes and the rural poor. Forest Policy and Economics 9(7):869–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The New York Botanical Garden 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Forestry, Ahar Faculty of Agriculture and Natural ResourcesUniversity of TabrizTabrizIran
  2. 2.Faculty of Natural ResourcesUniversity of TehranTehranIran
  3. 3.School for Environment and SustainabilityUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  4. 4.European Forest InstituteJoensuuFinland
  5. 5.Center for Sustainable ForestryUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations