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American Journal of Potato Research

, Volume 96, Issue 2, pp 151–163 | Cite as

The Nutritional Contribution of Potato Varietal Diversity in Andean Food Systems: a Case Study

  • Stef de HaanEmail author
  • Gabriela Burgos
  • Reyna Liria
  • Flor Rodriguez
  • Hilary M. Creed-Kanashiro
  • Merideth Bonierbale
Original Research

Abstract

Potato is the backbone of agriculture and diets in high-altitude food systems of Peru, where farmers grow diverse varietal portfolios. Here we report on the role of diverse landraces and modern potato varieties in the Andean diet. The dry matter, energy, protein, iron and zinc content of 12 floury and 9 bitter landraces was determined. The contribution of varietal diversity to the dietary intake of energy, protein, iron and zinc was established during two contrasting periods of overall food availability. Results show that the potato and intraspecific diversity make an important contribution to nutrition. Most floury landraces contain higher concentrations of protein and iron compared to the reference value reported in the 2009 Peruvian food composition table for a boiled and peeled floury landrace. Traditional freeze-drying of bitter landraces doesn’t affect energy or iron concentrations, but reduces protein and zinc content considerably. Protein and iron contents in boiled chuño derived from the bitter landraces are lower compared to the mean value reported in the food composition table. The contribution of varietal diversity ideally needs to be taken into account when conducting nutrition studies in diversity hotspots like the Andes where potato is a main staple. The potato adds positively to the nutritional balance and the recommended requirements for energy, protein, iron and zinc of women and children. Floury landraces and modern varieties complement each other in light of seasonality, providing valuable nutrients during contrasting periods of the year. The potato thus contributes positively to food security. However, the overall diversity of the diet was found to be poor, resulting in micronutrient deficiencies. Options to strengthen food based approaches to attend undernutrition are discussed.

Keywords

Nutrition security Agrobiodiversity Nutrient composition, nutrient intake Micronutrients Seasonality 

Resumen

La papa es la parte medular de la agricultura y en la dieta en sistemas alimenticios de gran altura en Perú, donde los agricultores cultivan una gran diversidad varietal. Aquí reportamos sobre el papel de diversas variedades nativas y variedades modernas de papa en la dieta andina. Se determinó el contenido de materia seca, energía, proteína, fierro y zinc de 12 variedades nativas harinosas  y 9 nativas amargas. Se estableció la contribución de la diversidad varietal al suministro de la dieta en energía, proteína, hierro y zinc, durante dos períodos contrastantes de la disponibilidad de alimentos en general. Los resultados muestran que la papa y la diversidad intraespecífica hacen una contribución importante a la nutrición. La mayoría de las variedades nativas harinosas contienen más altas concentraciones de proteína y hierro en comparación con el valor de referencia reportado en la tabla peruana de la composición alimenticia de 2009 para una variedad nativa harinosa hervida y pelada. El tradicional congelado-secado de variedades nativas amargas no afecta las concentraciones de energía o hierro, pero reduce los contenidos de proteína y zinc considerablemente. Los contenidos de proteína y hierro en chuño hervido derivado de las variedades nativas amargas son más bajos comparados con el valor medio reportado en la tabla de la composición alimenticia. La contribución de la diversidad varietal necesita tomarse idealmente en cuenta cuando se conduzcan estudios de nutrición en regiones que son centros de diversidad, como son los Andes, donde la papa es un alimento principal. La papa contribuye positivamente al balance nutricional y a los requerimientos recomendados para energía, proteína, hierro y zinc de mujeres y niños. Las variedades nativas harinosas y las modernas se complementan entre ellas respecto a la estacionalidad, proporcionando nutrientes valiosos durante períodos contrastantes del año. De esta manera la papa contribuye positivamente a la seguridad alimentaria. No obstante, la diversidad general de la dieta se encontró pobre, resultando en deficiencias de micronutrientes. Se discuten las opciones para reforzar los enfoques con base a los alimentos para atender la desnutrición.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to express gratitude to HarvestPlus and the Government of Spain (Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria) for the financial support received for the field work. Furthermore, also the CGIAR Research Program on Roots Tubers and Bananas (CRP-RTB) for supporting staff time of the scientists involved. We would like to thank Elena Taipe from CIP for her help with the artwork.

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Copyright information

© The Potato Association of America 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stef de Haan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Gabriela Burgos
    • 1
  • Reyna Liria
    • 3
  • Flor Rodriguez
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hilary M. Creed-Kanashiro
    • 4
  • Merideth Bonierbale
    • 1
  1. 1.International Potato Center (CIP)La MolinaPeru
  2. 2.International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT)Tu LiemVietnam
  3. 3.Instituto Nacional de Innovación Agraria (INIA)La MolinaPeru
  4. 4.Instituto de Investigación Nutricional (IIN)La MolinaPeru

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