Metabolic profiling of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans race 2 in dual cultures with biocontrol agents Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Trichoderma harzianum
There are increasing efforts to identify biocontrol-active microbial metabolites in order to improve strategies for biocontrol of phytopathogens. In this work, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans was confronted with three different biocontrol agents: Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in dual culture bioassays. Metabolites produced during the microbial interactions were screened by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). T. harzianum exhibited the strongest inhibition of growth of F. oxysporum resulting in overlay of the pathogen colony with its mycelium. Recorded metabolite profiles suggested a direct attack of F. oxysporum mycelium by T. harzianum and B. amyloliquefaciens by means of membrane-attacking peptaibols and a set of antimicrobial lipopeptides and siderophores, respectively. The direct mode of the biocontrol activity of T. harzianum and B. amyloliquefaciens corresponded to their ability to suppress F. oxysporum production of mycotoxin beauvericin suggesting that this ability is not specific only for Trichoderma species. In the case of P. aeruginosa, siderophores pyoverdine E/D and two rhamnolipids were produced as major bacterial metabolites; the rhamnolipid production was blocked by F. oxysporum. The results showed that this type of biocontrol activity was the least effective against F. oxysporum. The effective application of MALDI-MS profiling to the screening of nonvolatile microbial metabolites produced during the interaction of the phytopathogen and the biocontrol microorganisms was demonstrated.
The work was supported by QJ1510088 project of Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and LO1509 and LTC18009 projects of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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