Microencapsulation of phages to analyze their demeanor in physiological conditions

  • Esra Acar Soykut
  • Emine Kübra Tayyarcan
  • Şefika Evran
  • İsmail Hakkı BoyacıEmail author
  • İbrahim Çakır
  • Maha Khaaladi
  • Sami Fattouch
Original Article


Nowadays, phage therapy emerges as one of the alternative solutions to the problems arising from antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. Although phage therapy has been successfully applied both in vitro and in vivo, one of the biggest concerns in this regard is the stability of phages in body environment. Within the scope of this study, microencapsulation technology was used to increase the resistance of phages to physiological conditions, and the resulting microcapsules were tested in environments simulating body conditions. For this purpose, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis), and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) phages were isolated from different sources and then microencapsulated with 1.33% (w/v) sodium alginate using a spray dryer to minimize the damage of physiological environment. Stability of microcapsules in simulated gastric fluid and bile salt presence was tested. As a consequence, the maximum titer decrease of microencapsulated phages after 2-h incubation was found to be 2.29 log unit for B. subtilis phages, 1.71 log unit for S. Enteritidis phages, and 0.60 log unit for S. Typhimurium phages, while free phages lost their viability even after a 15-min incubation. Similarly, microencapsulation was found to increase the stability of phages in the bile salt medium and it was seen that after 3 h of incubation, the difference between the titers of microencapsulated phages and free phages could reach up to 3 log unit.


Funding information

This study was financially supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Project No. 114Z680).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Esra Acar Soykut
    • 1
  • Emine Kübra Tayyarcan
    • 2
  • Şefika Evran
    • 2
  • İsmail Hakkı Boyacı
    • 2
    Email author
  • İbrahim Çakır
    • 3
  • Maha Khaaladi
    • 4
  • Sami Fattouch
    • 4
  1. 1.Yeniçağa Yaşar Çelik Vocational SchoolBolu Abant İzzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey
  2. 2.Food Engineering DepartmentHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Food Engineering DepartmentBolu Abant İzzet Baysal UniversityBoluTurkey
  4. 4.National Institute of Applied Sciences and Technology (INSAT)University of CarthageTunisTunisia

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