Isolation and characterization of a potentially novel Siphoviridae phage (vB_SsapS-104) with lytic activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolated from urinary tract infection

  • Mahsa Yazdi
  • Majid BouzariEmail author
  • Ezzat Allah Ghaemi
Original Article


Antibiotic resistance is increasing among Staphylococcus saprophyticus strains isolated from urinary tract infection. This necessitates alternative therapies. For this, a lytic phage (vB_SsapS-104) against S. saprophyticus, which formed round and clear plaques on bacterial culture plates, was isolated from hospital wastewater and characterized. Microscopy analysis showed that it had a small head (about 50 nm), tail (about 80 nm), and a collar (about 22 nm in length and 19 nm in width) indicating to be a phage within Siphoviridae family. Phage vB_SsapS-104 showed a large latency period of about 40 min, rapid adsorption rate that was significantly enhanced by MgCl2 and CaCl2, and high stability to a wide range of temperatures and pH values. Restriction analyses demonstrated that phage consists of a double-stranded DNA with an approximate genome size of 40 Kb. BLAST results did not show high similarity (megablast) with other previously identified phages. But, in Blastn, similarity with Staphylococcus phages was observed. Phage vB_SsapS-104 represented high anti-bacterial activity against S. saprophyticus isolates in vitro as it was able to lyse 8 of the 9 clinical isolates (%88.8) obtained from a hospital in Gorgan, Iran. It was a S. saprophyticus-specific phage because no lytic activity was observed on some other pathogenic bacteria tested. Therefore, phage vB_SsapS-104 can be considered as a specific virulent phage against of S. saprophyitcus isolated from urinary tract infection. This study provided the partial genomic characterization of S. saprophyticus phage and its application against urinary tract infection associated with S. saprophyticus. This phage also can be considered as a good candidate for a therapeutic alternative in the future.


Staphylococcus saprophyticus Urinary tract infection Siphoviridae Lytic bacteriophage 


Funding information

This study was financially supported by a joint grant from the University of Isfahan and Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran [35/219525].

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12223_2018_653_MOESM1_ESM.jpg (725 kb)
ESM 1 Formation of plaque on double layer agar plate. (a) Lower dilution of the virus. (b) Higher dilution of the virus. (JPG 724 kb)


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Copyright information

© Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran
  2. 2.Laboratory Sciences Research CenterGolestan University of Medical SciencesGorganIran

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