Fibers and Polymers

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 1490–1499 | Cite as

Mechanical and Dynamic Mechanical Studies on Epoxy-Cobaltous Sulfate Polymer Hybrids

  • Shruti S. Devangamath
  • Blaise LoboEmail author
  • Saraswati P. Masti
  • Shivayogi Narasagoudr


Cobaltous sulfate heptahydrate (CoSO4·7H2O) was incorporated as filler into diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) based epoxy resin system, to prepare organic-inorganic polymer hybrid materials. Mechanical tensile studies and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) were carried out in order to study the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the prepared hybrid films. Mechanical tensile studies were carried out at room temperature, at a test speed of 30 mm/min. Highest tensile strength of 24.74±2.42 MPa was achieved for 4.44 wt% filler level (FL), along with an increase in the value of Young’s modulus. Storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″), damping factor (tan δ) were obtained by DMA studies. Glass transition temperature (Tg) was obtained for pure epoxy and filled epoxy, for various FLs varying from 0.28 wt% to 5.00 wt%. Pure epoxy showed highest Tg value compared to filled epoxy hybrids. Highest storage modulus of 9.5 GPa was obtained for 2.22 wt% FL, which also showed highest loss modulus peak. Parameters like effectiveness coefficient (C) and crosslink density were calculated from the storage modulus data. Loss modulus and tan δ curves were analyzed to study the energy dissipation properties of prepared hybrid films. Activation energy (Ea) value for glass transition was obtained from damping factor (tan δ), which showed highest Ea value of 630.5 kJmol-1, for 4.44 wt% FL. DMA studies for various FLs were carried out at different test frequencies in order to study the changes in dynamic mechanical properties of the prepared hybrid materials with respect to frequency


Epoxy resin Cobaltous sulfate heptahydrate Polymer hybrid materials Mechanical tensile studies Dynamic mechanical analysis 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    B. B. Johnsen, A. J. Kinloch, R. D. Mohammed, A. C. Taylor, and S. Sprenger, Polymer, 48, 530 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    H. Kim, Fiber. Polym., 13, 762 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.-Y. Fu, X.-Q. Feng, B. Lauke, and Y.-W. Mai, Composites Part B, 39, 933 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    S. N. Goyanes, P. G. Konig, and J. D. Marconi, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 88, 883 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    K. C. Radford, J. Mater. Sci., 6, 1286 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. S. Harishanand, H. Nagabhushana, B. M. Nagabhushana, P. Panda, R. Gupta, M. S. Muruli, N. Raghavendra, and K. R. Vishnu Mahesh, Adv. Polym. Sci. Tech.: An Int. J. (ISSN: 2277–7164), 3, 7 (2013).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. E. Nielsen, J. Compos. Mater., 1, 100 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. Spanoudakis and R. J. Young, J. Mater. Sci., 19, 487 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    O. Sindt, J. Perez, and J. F. Gerard, Polymer, 37, 2989 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    G. Sui, S. Jana, A. Salehi-khojin, S. Neema, W. H. Zhong, H. Chen, and Q. Huo, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 109, 247 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    P. V. Joseph, G. Mathew, K. Joseph, G. Groeninckx, and S. Thomas, Composites Part A, 34, 275 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    V. G. Geethamma, R. Asaletha, N. Kalarikkal, and S. Thomas, Resonance, 19, 821 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    I. S. Elashmawi and E. M. Abdelrazek, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 115, 2691 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. Kumari, V. Ali, R. Gupta, G. B. V. S. Lakshmi, and M. Zulfequar, Chitkara Chem. Rev., 1, 35 (2013).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    P. Sachdev, M. Banerjee, and G. S. Mukherjee, Def. Sci. J., 64, 290 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    P. Ghosh, A. Sarkar, A. K. Meikap, S. K. Chattopadhyay, S. K. Chatterjee, and M. Ghosh, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 39, 3047 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H. Wang, S. P. Wong, W. Y. Cheung, N. Ke, M. F. Chiah, H. Liu, and X. X. Zhang, J. Appl. Phys., 88, 2063 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    B. K. Pandey, A. K. Shahi, R. K. Swarnkar, and R. Gopal, Sci. Adv. Mater., 4, 537 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    J. D. Donaldson and D. Beyersmann, “Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry”,, Vol. 9, pp.429–465, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2012.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    I. Ozsoy, A. Demirkol, A. Mimaroglu, H. Unal, and Z. Demir, J. Mech. Eng., 61, 601 (2015).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    B. Qi, Z. Yuan, S. Lu, K. Liu, S. Li, L. Yang, and J. Yu, Fiber. Polym., 15, 326 (2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. Komalan, K. E. George, P. A. S. Kumar, K. T. Varughese, and S. Thomas, eXPRESSpolym. Lett., 1, 641 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. Saba, M. Jawaid, O. Y. Alothman, and M. T. Paridah, Constr. Build. Mater, 106, 149 (2016).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    L. A. Pothan, Z. Oommen, and S. Thomas, Compos. Sci. Technol., 63, 283 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. B. Messersmith and E. P. Giannelis, Chem. Mater., 6, 1719 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Steven Nahm, “Use of Dynamic Mechanical Analysis in Thermoset Resin Development (For Composites Applications)”, Composites 2001 Convention and Trade Show, Composites Fabrication Association, USA, October, 2001.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    H. Li, E. Burts, K. Bears, Q. Ji, J. J. Lesko, D. A. Dillard, and J. S. Riffle, J. Compos. Mater., 34, 1512 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    L. W. Hill, Prog. Org. Coat., 31, 235 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    John D. Ferry, “Viscoeleastic Properties of Polymers”, 3rd ed., John wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    V. Selvakumar and N. Manoharan, Indian. J. Sci. Tech., 7, 136 (2014).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    S. Mohanty, S. K. Verma, and S. K. Nayak, Compos. Sci. Technol., 66, 538 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    N. Hameed, P. A. Sreekumar, B. Francis, W. Yang, and S. Thomas, Composites Part A, 38, 2422 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K. Yu, M. Wang, J. Wu, K. Qian, J. Sun, and X. Lu, Nanomaterials, 6, 89 (2016).CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    F. M. Margem, S. N. Monteiro, J. B. Neto, R. J. S. Rodriguez, and B. G. Soares, Revista Materia, 15, 164 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Y. Sun, Z. Zhang, K. Moon, and C. P. Wong, J. Polym. Sci. Part B: Polym. Phys., 42, 3849 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    X. F. Yao, H. Y. Yeh, D. Zhou, and Y. H. Zhang, J. Compos. Mater., 40, 371 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    K. C. Yung, B. L. Zhu, T. M. Yue, and C. S. Xie, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 116, 225 (2010).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    V. G. Geethamma, G. Kalaprasad, G. Groeninckx, and S. Thomas, Composites Part A, 36, 1499 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    M. Ashida, T. Noguchi, and S. Mashimo, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 29, 661 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    H. L. Ornaghi Jr., A. S. Bolner, R. Fiorio, A. J. Zattera, and S. C. Amico, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 118, 887 (2010).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    J. Rault, J. Non-cryst. Solids, 271, 177 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    W. M. Nakitare and A. S. Merenga, Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. Res., 3, 464 (2014).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    L. A. Pothan, S. Thomas, and G. Groeninckx, Composites Part A, 37, 1260 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    J. M. G. Cowie and V. Arrighi, “Polymers: Chemistry and Physics of Modern Materials”, 3rd ed., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, UK, 2007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    L. Ibarra, A. Macias, and E. Palma, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 57, 831 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    K. Cho, B. H. Lee, K. M. Hwang, H. Lee, and S. Choe, Polym. Eng. Sci., 38, 1969 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    C. Wisniewki, G. Marin, and P. H. Monge, Eur. Polym. J., 21, 479 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Fiber Society and Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shruti S. Devangamath
    • 1
  • Blaise Lobo
    • 1
    Email author
  • Saraswati P. Masti
    • 2
  • Shivayogi Narasagoudr
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsKarnatak University’s Karnatak Science CollegeDharwadIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryKarnatak University’s Karnatak Science CollegeDharwadIndia

Personalised recommendations