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Coherent Capillary Wave Structure Revealed by ISS Experiments for Spontaneous Nozzle Jet Disintegration

  • Akira UmemuraEmail author
  • Jun Osaka
  • Junji Shinjo
  • Yasuhiro Nakamura
  • Satoshi Matsumoto
  • Masao Kikuchi
  • Tatsuya Taguchi
  • Hayato Ohkuma
  • Tomokazu Dohkojima
  • Taro Shimaoka
  • Takehiko Sone
  • Hidetoshi Nakagami
  • Wataru Ono
Original Article
  • 6 Downloads

Abstract

A series of International Space Station (ISS) experiments were conducted to observe the disintegration feature of a water jet issued from an orifice/nozzle into atmospheric air. The purpose was to validate our proposal that any laminar liquid jet can spontaneously disintegrate by its own self-destabilizing loop formed along the jet. This paper reports the experiment results focusing on a water jet issued from a nozzle with a radius 0.4 mm and length 120 mm, in which the parabolic velocity profile relaxes toward that of a plug flow along the jet. As predicted in our proposal, the nozzle jet had a two-valued breakup distance in a certain jet issue speed range and exhibited hysteresis behaviors, indicating that the jet disintegration state is determined by past jet disintegration history. Analyses of video images suggest the establishment of a coherent capillary wave structure in the steady jet disintegration state. New fundamental theories were developed to examine the underlying physics involved. The short-length breakup mode was confirmed to essentially follow the same self-destabilizing mechanism as that of the plug flow jet, in which the upstream propagating capillary wave produced by the release of surface energy due to jet tip contraction or nonlinear unstable wave growth is reflected at the orifice, and becomes the unstable wave responsible for jet disintegration. In the long-length breakup mode, the velocity profile relaxation plays a role equivalent to an orifice and the average nozzle jet length is expressed as the sum of the velocity profile relaxation length and average orifice jet length at large jet issue speeds. This paper focuses on the coherent capillary wave structure of long-length breakup mode.

Keywords

Microgravity Spontaneous nozzle jet disintegration Velocity profile relaxation Capillary wave Linear stability analysis Self-destabilizing loop 

Nomenclature

a

inner radius of injector

c

complex phase velocity(=cr + ici)

D

diffusivity(\( = Va/\sqrt{2} \))

f

complex function defined in Eq. (16)

G

Green function

k

wavenumber

\( \overline{L} \)

average jet length

LB

breakup distance

Le

Boussinesq inlet length

nozzle length

m

integer

n

integer

R

inner radius of syringe barrel

Red

Reynolds numer of nozzle flow

rs

local jet surface radius

r

surface displacement(= rs-a)

T

breakup period

t

time

U

jet discharge speed, jet speed

umax

centerline velocity of nozzle jet

us

surface velocity of nozzle jet

V

jet tip contraction speed (=\( \sqrt{\sigma /\rho a} \))

v

piston rot speed

We

Weber number(=(U/V)2)

x

axial coordinate

Δu

excess velocity from surface velocity (=umax-us)

δ

Diracs delta function

ε

surface deformation amplitude

λ

wavelength

λs

wavelength of standing wave

ρ

density of water

σ

surface tension coefficient of water

τ

instant when an impulsive force is applied

ϕ

=cr’/Δu

Ω

frequency of most unstable wave

ω

frequency(=kcr)

ωS

resonant frequency(=kcr)

Abbreviation

LLBUM

long-length breakup mode

MPT

maximum point trajectory

SLBUM

short-length breakup mode

TCW

tip contraction wave

VPR

velocity profile relaxation

Notes

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Umemura
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jun Osaka
    • 1
  • Junji Shinjo
    • 2
  • Yasuhiro Nakamura
    • 3
  • Satoshi Matsumoto
    • 3
  • Masao Kikuchi
    • 3
  • Tatsuya Taguchi
    • 3
  • Hayato Ohkuma
    • 3
  • Tomokazu Dohkojima
    • 3
  • Taro Shimaoka
    • 4
  • Takehiko Sone
    • 5
  • Hidetoshi Nakagami
    • 6
  • Wataru Ono
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Aerospace EngineeringNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Electrical and Electronic EngineeringShimane UniversityMatsueJapan
  3. 3.Human Spaceflight Technology DirectorateJapan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)TsukubaJapan
  4. 4.Japan Space ForumTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Japan Manned Space Systems CorporationTsukubaJapan
  6. 6.Chiyoda CorporationYokohamaJapan

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