Advertisement

Consumer experience and the valued elements in the three phases of purchase of a cultural event

  • Cátia Mendes de JesusEmail author
  • Helena Maria Batista Alves
Original Article
  • 94 Downloads

Abstract

Consumer experience has been a central point for marketing researchers, but also a complex subject that seeks to integrate multiple relevant and enduring concepts of literature. In this sense there are numerous publications and perspectives on the subject, but the need to identify and understand the origins of the experience and consumer behaviour has been highlighted by many authors. In this sense, the article addresses the consumer experience globally, having as main objective the identification, categorization and understanding of the main elements that consumers value during their experience in an event. The analysis allowed to highlight the elements and attributes that influenced (positively and negatively) the consumer experience along the different touchpoints existing in the three phases of purchase. An exploratory and interpretative approach was adopted based on a case study of the “Óbidos Christmas Town” event. This qualitative research adopted netnography as a methodological technique and analyzed the comments present on TripAdvisor. The selection process resulted in a total of 153 comments valid for analysis. The results revealed different elements through the three phases of purchase. In the pre-purchase phase consumers valued elements: a) functional/motivational; b) communicative; c) technological and d) elements of interaction between consumers. In the purchase phase they valued as elements: a) interaction with the service; b) interaction with employees; c) atmospheric elements, and d) elements of process; while in the post-purchase they valued technological elements and elements of interaction between consumers. This article provides a comprehensive understanding and helps events organizations in identifying key elements and respective touchpoints along the consumer experience in an event.

Keywords

Consumer experience Elements/attributes of the experience Purchase phases Consumer Event 

Notes

References

  1. Ahtola, O. (1985). Hedonic and utilitarian aspects of consumer behavior: An attitudinal perspective. Advances in Consumer Research, 12(1), 7–10.Google Scholar
  2. Andajani, E. (2015). Understanding customer experience Management in Retailing. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 211, 629–633.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersen, V., Prentice, R., & Watanabe, K. (2000). Journeys for experiences: Japanese independent travelers in Scotland. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 9(1–2), 129–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arnould, E., & Price, L. (1993). River magic: Extraordinary experience and the extended service encounter. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 24–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnould, E., & Thompson, C. (2005). Consumer culture theory (CCT): Twenty years of research. Journal of Consumer Research, 31(4), 868–882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barwitz, N. & Maas, P. (2016). Value Creation in a Multichannel World Understanding the Customer Journey. 6th Global Innovation and Knowledge Academy Conference (GIKA) - Valencia, Spain.Google Scholar
  7. Beck, J. & Palmatier, R. (2013). Relationship marketing. In Handbook of Business-to-Business Marketing. Edited by Gary Lilien and Rajdeep Grewal. Cheltenham, UK – Northampton, MA, USA.Google Scholar
  8. Berry, L., Carbone, L., & Haeckel, S. (2002). Managing the Total customer experience. MIT Sloan Management Review, 43(3), 85–89.Google Scholar
  9. Bharwani, S., & Jauhari, V. (2013). An exploratory study of competencies required to co-create memorable customer experiences in the hospitality industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(6), 823–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bitner, M., Ostrom, A., & Morgan, F. (2008). Service blueprinting: A practical technique for service innovation. California Management Review, 50(3), 66–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bolton, R., & Saxena-Iyer, S. (2009). Interactive services: A framework, synthesis and research directions. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 23(1), 91–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brodie, R., Hollebeek, L., Juric, B., & Ilic, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual domain, fundamental propositions, and implications for research. Journal of Service Research, 14(3), 252–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chandler, J., & Lusch, R. (2015). Service systems: A broadened framework and research agenda on value propositions, engagement and service experience. Journal of Service Research, 18(1), 6–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen, T., Drennan, J., & Andrews, L. (2012). Experience sharing. Journal of Marketing Management, 28(13–14), 1535–1552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crompton, J. (1979). Motivations for pleasure vacation. Annals of Tourism Research, 6(4), 408–424.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dar-Nimrod, I., Rawn, C., Lehman, D., & Schwartz, B. (2009). The maximization paradox: The costs of seeking alternatives. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(5–6), 631–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doorn, J., Lemon, K., Mittal, V., & Nass, S. (2010). Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions. Journal of Service Research, 13(3), 253–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Edvardsson, B., Gustafsson, A., & Roos, I. (2005). Service portraits in service research: A critical review. International Journal of Service Industry Management, 16(1), 107–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gentile, C., Spiller, N., & Noci, G. (2007). How to sustain the customer experience: An overview of experience components that co-create value with the customer. European Management Journal, 25(5), 395–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Geus, S., Richards, G., & Toepoel, V. (2016). Conceptualization and operationalization of event and festival experiences: Creation of an event experience scale. Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, 16(3), 274–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grönroos, C. (2008). Service logic revisited: Who creates value? And who co-creates? European Business Review, 20(4), 298–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Grönroos, C. (2011). Value co-creation in service logic: A critical analysis. Marketing Theory, 11(1).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grönroos, C., & Voima, P. (2013). Critical service logic: Making sense of value creation and co-creation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(3), 133–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haggerty, K. (2004). Ethics creep: Governing social science research in the name of ethics. Qualitative Sociology, 27(4), 391–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Helkkula, A. (2011). Characterizing the concept of service experience. Journal of Service Management, 22(3), 367–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Helkkula, A., Kelleher, C., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Characterizing value as an experience: Implications for service researchers and managers. Journal of Service Research, 15(1), 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Higgins, T., & Scholer, A. (2009). Engaging the consumer: The science and art of the value creation process. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(2), 100–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holbrook, M., & Hirschman, E. (1982). The experiential aspects of consumption: Consumer fantasies, feelings, and fun. Journal of Consumer Research, 9(2), 132–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Huang, S., & Zhang, Y. (2013). All roads lead to Rome: The impact of multiple attainment means on motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(2), 236–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Jaakkola, E., Helkkula, A. & Aarikka-Stenroos, L. (2015). Service experience co-creation: Conceptualization, implications, and future research directions. Journal of Service Management, 26(2), 182–205.Google Scholar
  31. Jüttner, U., Windler, D. & Maklan, S. (2013). Customer service experiences: Developing and applying a sequential incident laddering technique. European Journal of Marketing, 47(5/6), 738–768.Google Scholar
  32. Kelleher, C., & Peppard, J. (2011). Consumer experience of value creation - a phenomenological perspective. European Advances in Consumer Research, 9, 325–332.Google Scholar
  33. Keyser, A., Lemon, K., Klaus, P. & Keiningham, T. (2015). A framework for understanding and managing the customer experience. Marketing Science Institute Working Paper Series. Google Scholar
  34. Kim, S., & Stoel, L. (2004). Apparel retailers: Website quality dimensions and satisfaction. Journal of Retailing and Customer Services, 11, 87–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Klaus, P., & Maklan, S. (2012). Towards a better measure of customer experience. International Journal of Market Research, 55(2), 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kozinets, R. (2002). The field behind the screen: Using netnography for marketing research in online communities. Journal of Marketing Research, XXXIX, 61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Langer, R., & Beckman, S. (2005). Sensitive research topics: Netnography revisited. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 8(2), 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lemon, K., & Verhoef, P. (2016). Understanding customer experience throughout the customer journey. Journal of Marketing, 80(6), 69–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Marketing Science Institute (2016). Research Priorities 2014–2026. Cambridge, Marketing Science InstituteGoogle Scholar
  40. Marketing Science Institute. (2018). Research priorities 2018–2020. Cambridge: Marketing Science Institute.Google Scholar
  41. Mencarelli, R., Marteux, S., & Puhl, M. (2010). Museums, consumers and on-site experiences. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 28(3), 5–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Minkiewicz, J., Bridson, K., & Evans, J. (2016). Co-production of service experiences: Insights from the cultural sector. Journal of Services Marketing, 30(7), 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pearce, P. (2005). Developing the travel career approach to tourist motivation. Journal of Travel Research, 43(3), 226–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pine, J., & Gilmore, J. (1998). Welcome to the experience economy. Harvard Business Review, 97–105.Google Scholar
  45. Prayag, G., & Ryan, C. (2011). The relationship between the 'push' and 'pull' factors of a tourist destination: The role of nationality - an analytical qualitative research approach. Current Issues in Tourism, 14(2).Google Scholar
  46. Puccinelli, N., Goodstein, R., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: Understanding the buying process. Journal of Retailing, 85(1).Google Scholar
  47. Rageh, A., Melewar, T., & Woodside, A. (2013). Using netnography research method to reveal the underlying dimensions of the customer/tourist experience. Qualitative Market Research, 16(2).Google Scholar
  48. Richards G. (2017). Measuring event experiences: An international view. In Experiencias turísticas de festivales y eventos. Revista de Turismo y Patrimonio Cultural Colección PASOS edita, n° 17.Google Scholar
  49. Robertson, M. & Frew, E. (2013). Events and festivals: Current trends and issues. Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. Rosenbaum, M., Otalora, M., & Ramírez, G. (2017). How to create a realistic customer journey map. Business Horizons, 60(1), 143–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Sansone, C. & Thoman, D. (2006). Maintaining activity engagement: individual differences in the process of self-regulating motivation. Journal of Personality, 74(6), 1697–1720.Google Scholar
  52. Schmitt, B. (1999). Experiential marketing. Journal of Marketing Management, 15(1–3), 53–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schwartz, B., Ward, A., Monterosso, J., Lyubomirsky, S., White, K., & Lehman, D. (2002). Maximizing versus satisficing: Happiness is a matter of choice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(5), 1178–1197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Shankar, V., Smith, A., & Rangaswamy, A. (2003). Customer satisfaction and loyalty in online and offline environments. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 20, 153–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Srivastava, M., & Kaul, D. (2014). Social interaction, convenience and customer satisfaction: The mediating effect of customer experience. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 21, 1028–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stein, A., & Ramaseshan, B. (2016). Towards the identification of customer experience touch point elements. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 30, 8–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Vargo, S., & Lusch, R. (2008). Why service? Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 36(1), 25–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Verhoef, P., Lemon, K., Parasuraman, A., Roggeveen, A., Tsiros, M., & Schlesinger, L. (2009). Customer experience creation: Determinants, dynamics and management strategies. Journal of Retailing, 85(1).Google Scholar
  59. Vila-López, N., & Rodríguez-Molina, M. (2013). Event-brand transfer in an entertainment service: Experiential marketing. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 113(5), 712–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Vliet, H. (2012). Festivals: Eenintroductie. In H. Van Vliet (Ed.), Festivalbeleving. De waarde van publieksevenementen (13–31). Utrecht: Hogeschool Utrecht.Google Scholar
  61. Walls, R., Okumus, F., Wang, Y., & Kwun, W. (2011). An epistemological view of consumer experiences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(1), 10–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wolny, J., & Charoensuksai, N. (2014). Mapping customer journeys in multichannel decision-making. Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 15, 317–326.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Yang, Z., & Jun, M. (2002). Consumer perception of E-service quality from internet purchaser and non-purchaser perspectives. Journal of Business Strategies, 19(1), 19–41.Google Scholar
  64. Yi, Y., & Gong, T. (2013). Customer value co-creation behavior: Scale development and validation. Journal of Business Research, 66(9), 1279–1284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Zarantonello, L., & Schmitt, B. (2013). The impact of event marketing on brand equity. International Journal of Advertising: The Review of Marketing Communications, 32(2), 255–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Zomerdijk, G., & Voss, A. (2010). Service Design for Experience-Centric Services. Journal of Service Research, 13(1), 67–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Management and EconomicsUniversity of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal

Personalised recommendations