Psychological Injury and Law

, Volume 12, Issue 3–4, pp 204–211 | Cite as

Use of Validity Indicators on the Personality Assessment Inventory to Detect Feigning of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder

  • Duncan N. Russell
  • Leslie C. MoreyEmail author


This study examined the ability of several Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity indicators to detect feigning of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants included 491 individuals recruited through Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTURK): 44 participants were asked to feign PTSD, 25 participants carried a diagnosis of PTSD and demonstrated at least moderate levels of current symptom, and 422 served as control subjects. Results indicated that all of the PAI negative distortion validity indicators significantly distinguished the true PTSD from the feigned PTSD group. The indicators with the largest effect sizes were the Hong Malingering Function and the Multiscale Feigning Index, both of which demonstrated moderate sensitivity to feigned PTSD with specificity above 90%.


Malingering Feigning Personality assessment inventory Post-traumatic stress disorder 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Leslie Morey is the author of the Personality Assessment Inventory and receives royalties from its sale. Duncan Russell declares that he has no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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