Advertisement

Transit Migration and Trauma: the Detrimental Effect of Interpersonal Trauma on Syrian Children in Transit in Italy

  • Francesca GiordanoEmail author
  • Alessandra Cipolla
  • Fausto Ragnoli
  • Federico Brajda Bruno
Article

Abstract

Following the humanitarian crisis caused by the Syrian war, the shortages in European Union’s reception system exposed numerous children to a prolonged period of transit within frontier countries (e.g., Italy), during which they were considered “invisible” and received no legal recognition and protection. This situation offered a unique possibility to study the psychological dimensions involved in the elaboration of trauma during a migratory journey characterized by the lack of reception services. The present study, conducted on a group of Syrian children (n = 271) in transit to Italy with their families while on their journey to Northern Europe, aimed to explore the mental health of this population, focusing on the impact of interpersonal trauma as risk factors and resilience as protection for children’s mental health outcomes. The children were assessed for dose of exposure to traumatic experiences, post-traumatic symptomatology, social impairment dimensions, and resilience. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to check for the effects of dose of exposure and specific type of interpersonal trauma on post-traumatic symptomatology. Results showed that traumatic experiences affecting interpersonal relationships (family torture, serious deprivation, and bereavement) predict higher levels of PTSD, while the protective role of resilience on PTSD outcomes turned out to be inhibited. The paper also discusses the implications for stakeholders and policy makers and defines the theoretical future developments of the research.

Keywords

Resilience Migration PTSD Children Transit migration Syria Dublin regulation 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standard

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abdeen, Z. A. M., Qasrawi, R., Nabil, S., & Shaheen, M. A. M. (2008). Psychological reactions to Israeli occupation: findings from the national study of school-based screening in Palestine. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(4), 290–297.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025408092220.Google Scholar
  2. Alisic, E., Zalta, A. K., van Wesel, F., Larsen, S. E., Hafstad, G. S., Hassanpour, K., & Smid, G. E. (2014). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposed children and adolescents: Meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science, 204, 335–340.  https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.113.131227.Google Scholar
  3. Almaqrami, M., & Shuwail, A. (2004). Validity of the self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in Yemen. Saudi Medical Journal, 25(5), 592–601.Google Scholar
  4. Almqvist, K., & Brandell-Forsberg, M. (1997). Refugee children in Sweden: post-traumatic stress disorder in Iranian preschool children exposed to organized violence. Child Abuse and Neglect, 2(4), 351–366.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134(96)00176-7.Google Scholar
  5. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV-TR. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.  https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.books.9780890423349.Google Scholar
  6. Armstrong, M., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., & Ungar, M. (2005). Pathways between social support, family well being, quality of parenting, and child resilience: what we know. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(2), 269–281.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-005-5054-4.Google Scholar
  7. Arnetz, J., Rofa, Y., Arnetz, B., Ventimiglia, M., & Jamil, H. (2013). Resilience as a protective factor against the development of psychopathology among refugees. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 201(3), 167–172.  https://doi.org/10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182848afe.Google Scholar
  8. Baddoura, C., & Merhi, M. (2015). PTSD among children and adolescents in the Arab world. Arab Journal of Psychiatry, 26(2), 129–136.  https://doi.org/10.12816/0014479.Google Scholar
  9. Barenbaum, J., Ruchkin, V., & Schwab-Stone, M. (2004). The psychosocial aspects of children exposed to war: practice and policy initiatives. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 41–62.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0021-9630.2003.00304.Google Scholar
  10. Betancourt, T. S. (2005). Stressors, supports and the social ecology of displacement: psychosocial dimensions of an emergency education program for Chechen adolescents displaced in Ingushetia, Russia. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 29(3), 309–340.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11013-005-9170-9.Google Scholar
  11. Betancourt, T. S., & Khan, K. T. (2008). The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: protective processes and pathways to resilience. International Review of Psychiatry, 20(3), 317–328.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09540260802090363.Google Scholar
  12. Boelen, P. A., & Spuij, M. (2013). Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder in bereaved children and adolescents: factor structure and correlates. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 41(7), 1097–1108.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9748-6.Google Scholar
  13. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Carter, A. S., & Ford, J. D. (2012). Parsing the effects violence exposure in early childhood: modelling developmental pathways. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37, 11–22.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsr063.Google Scholar
  14. Briggs-Gowan, M. J., Ford, J. D., Fraleigh, L., McCarthy, K., & Carter, A. S. (2011). Prevalence of exposure to potentially traumatic events in a healthy birth cohort of very young children in the northeastern United States. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 725–733.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jts.20593.Google Scholar
  15. Brom, D., Pat-Horenczyk, R., & Ford, J. D. (Eds.). (2009). Treating traumatized children: risk, resilience and recovery. New York, NY: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, E. J., Pearlman, M. Y., & Goodman, R. F. (2004). Facing fears and sadness: cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 12(4), 187–198.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10673220490509516.Google Scholar
  17. Burri, A., & Maercker, A. (2014). Differences in prevalence rates of PTSD in various European countries explained by war exposure, other trauma and cultural value orientation. BMC Research Notes, 7, 407.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0500-7-407.Google Scholar
  18. Castelli, C. (2013). Tutori di resilienza. Guida orientativa per interventi psico-educativi. Milan, Italy: EDUCatt Università Cattolica.Google Scholar
  19. Cesana, M. L., Giordano, F., Boerchi, D., Rivolta, M., & Castelli, C. (2018). Drawing to reconstruct: pilot study on acknowledging prisoners’ internal and external resources in a penitentiary institution. World Futures, 74, 1–20.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02604027.2018.1445913.Google Scholar
  20. Clervil, R., Guarino, K., DeCandia, C. J., & Beach, C. A. (2013). Trauma-informed care for displaced populations: A guide for community-based service providers. Needham, MA: The National Center on Family Homelessness.Google Scholar
  21. Council of Europe (2017). Council of Europe Action Plan on protecting refugee and migrant children adopted. Retrieved from https://www.coe.int/en/web/children/-/council-of-europe-action-plan-on-protecting-refugee-and-migrant-children-adopted?desktop=false. Accessed 23 Jan 2019.
  22. Curtis, P., Thompson, J., & Fairbrother, H. (2018). Migrant children within Europe: a systematic review of children’s perspectives on their health experiences. Public Health, 158, 71–85.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2018.01.038.Google Scholar
  23. Curtois, C. (2004). Complex trauma, complex reactions: assessment and treatment. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 41, 412–425.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1942-9681.S.1.86.Google Scholar
  24. D’Andrea, W., Ford, J. D., Stolbach, B., Spinazzola, J., & Van der Kolk, B. A. (2012). Understanding interpersonal trauma in children: why we need a developmentally appropriate trauma diagnosis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82, 187–200.Google Scholar
  25. Damra, J. K., & Nassar, Y. H. (2014). The effect of cognitive behavioral trauma focused therapy model on sample of war children’s depression symptomatology. Zarqa, Jordan: Hashemite University, Faculty of Sciences Education, Department of Educational Psychology.Google Scholar
  26. Dauphine, A., & Provitolo, D. (2007). Resilience: a concept for risk management [La résilience: Un concept pour la gestion des risques]. Annales de Geographie, 654, 115–125.  https://doi.org/10.3917/ag.654.0115.Google Scholar
  27. Davidson, G. R., Murray, K. E., & Schweitzer, R. D. (2010). Review of refugee mental health assessment: best practices and recommendation. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 4(1), 72–85.  https://doi.org/10.1375/prp.4.1.72.Google Scholar
  28. Dell’Osso, L., Carmassi, C., Stratta, P., Massimetti, G., Akiskal, K. K., Akiskal, H. S., Maremmani, I., & Rossi, A. (2012). Gender differences in the relationship between maladaptive behaviors and post-traumatic stress disorder. A study on 900 L’Aquila 2009 earthquake survivors. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 3, 111.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2012.00111].
  29. Devi, S. (2016). Syria’s health crisis: 5 years on. Lancet, 387, 1042–1043.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00690-5.Google Scholar
  30. Dhamrah, J., & Abueita, S. (2014). The effect of trauma focused cognitive behavioral therapy and music therapy on decreasing the posttraumatic stress symptomatology among a sample of war children. Zarqa, Jordan: Hashemite University, Faculty of Sciences Education, Department of Educational Psychology.Google Scholar
  31. Doocy, S., Lyles, E., Delbiso, T. D., Robinson, C. W., & IOCC/GOPA Study Team. (2015). Internal displacement and the Syrian crisis: an analysis of trends from 2011–2014. Conflict and Health, 9, 33.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-015-0060-7.Google Scholar
  32. Ellis, B. H., MacDonald, H. Z., Lincoln, A. K., & Cabral, H. J. (2008). Mental health of Somali adolescent refugees: the role of trauma, stress, and perceived discrimination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 184–193.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.184.Google Scholar
  33. European Commission (2017a) Communication from the commission to the European Parliament and Council on the protection of children in migration, SWD (2017) 129 final, COM (2017) 211 final. Brussels.Google Scholar
  34. European Parliament and Council of the European Union (2013). Directive 2013/33 of the European Parliament and Council of 23 June 2013. Retrieved from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32013L0033&from=en. Accessed 23 Jan 2019.
  35. Fasfous, A. F., Peralta-Ramirez, I., & Pérez-Garcia, M. (2013). Symptoms of PTSD among children living in war zones in same cultural context and different situations. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 7(2), 47–61.  https://doi.org/10.3998/jmmh.10381607.0007.203.Google Scholar
  36. Fazel, M., & Stein, A. (2002). The mental health of refugee children. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 87, 366–370.  https://doi.org/10.1136/adc.87.5.366.Google Scholar
  37. Fazel, M., Wheeler, J., & Danesh, J. (2005). Prevalence of serious mental disorder in 7000 refugees resettled in western countries: a systematic review. Lancet, 365(9467), 1309–1314.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)61027-6.Google Scholar
  38. Forbes, D., Fletcher, S., Parslow, R., Phelps, A., O’Donnell, M., Bryant, R., McFarlane, A., Silove, D., & Creamer, M. (2012). Trauma at the hands of another: longitudinal study of differences in the posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile following interpersonal compared with non-interpersonal trauma. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 73, 372–376.  https://doi.org/10.4088/JCP.10m06640.Google Scholar
  39. Fullerton, M. (2016). Asylum crisis Italian style: the Dublin regulation collides with European human rights law. Harvard Human Rights Journal, 29, 57–134.Google Scholar
  40. Giacaman, R., Mataria, A., Nguyen-Gillham, V., Safieh, R. A., Stefanini, A., & Chatterji, S. (2007). Quality of life in the Palestinian context: an inquiry in war-like conditions. Health Policy, 81, 68–84.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2006.05.011.Google Scholar
  41. Giordano, F., Castelli, C., Crocq, L., & Baubet, T. (2012). Non-sense and chaos in the drawings of children victims of the earthquake in Abruzzo [Le non-sens et le chaos dans les dessins des enfants victimes du tremblement de terre aux Abruzzes]. Annales Medico-Psychologiques, 170(5), 342–348.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amp.2012.05.011.Google Scholar
  42. Giordano, F., & Ferrari, C. (2018). Resilience in children victims of violence: an intervention project with adolescents in Lithuania [Processi di resilienza in minori vittime di violenza: Un progetto di intervento con adolescenti in Lituania]. Maltrattamento e Abuso all’Infanzia, 20(2), 105–116.Google Scholar
  43. Giordano, F., Orenti, A., Lanzoni, M., Marano, G., Biganzoli, E., Castelli, C., & Baubet, T. (2015). Trauma and temporal discontinuity in children victims of natural disasters. the Test de trois dessins: Avant, pendant et avenir [Trauma e discontinuità temporale nei minori vittime di disastri naturali. Il Test de trois dessins: Avant, pendant et avenir]. Maltrattamento e Abuso all’Infanzia, 17(2), 87–116.  https://doi.org/10.3280/MAL2015-002005.Google Scholar
  44. Giordano, F., Ragnoli, F., Brajda Bruno, F., & Boerchi, D. (2018). Resilience and trauma-related outcomes in children victims of violence attending the Assisted Resilience Approach Therapy (ARAT). Child and Youth Services Review, 96, 286–293.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.11.050.Google Scholar
  45. Goodman, R. (1997). The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38(5), 581–586.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x.Google Scholar
  46. Groark, C., Sclare, I., & Raval, H. (2011). Understanding the experiences and emotional needs of unaccompanied asylum-seeking adolescents in the UK. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 16(3), 421–442.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104510370405.Google Scholar
  47. Guha-Sapir, D., Rodriguez-Llanes, J., Hicks, M., Donneau, A. F., Coutts, A., Lillywhite, L., & Fouad, F. M. (2015). Civilian deaths from weapons used in the Syrian conflict. British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.), 351, h4736.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h4736.Google Scholar
  48. Haagen, J. F. G., ter Heide, F. J. J., Mooren, T. M., Knipscheer, J. W., & Kleber, R. J. (2017). Predicting post-traumatic stress disorder treatment response in refugees: multilevel analysis. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56(1), 69–83.  https://doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12121.Google Scholar
  49. Haj-Yahia, M. M. (2008). Political violence in retrospect: its effect on the mental health of Palestinian adolescents. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(4), 283–289.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025408090971.Google Scholar
  50. Heptinstall, E., Sethna, V., & Taylor, E. (2004). PTSD and depression in refugee children: association with pre-migration trauma and post-migration stress. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 13, 373–380.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-004-0422-y.Google Scholar
  51. Hopper, E. K., Bassuk, E. L., & Olivet, J. (2010). Shelter from the storm: Trauma-informed care in homelessness setting. The Open Health Services and Policy Journal, 3, 80–100.  https://doi.org/10.2174/1874924001003010080.Google Scholar
  52. Içduygu, A. (1995). Transit migrants and Turkey. Bogazici Journal: Review of Social, Economic and Administrative studies, 1–2, 10(142), 127.Google Scholar
  53. Keller, A., Lhewa, D., Rosenfeld, B., Sachs, E., Aladiem, A., Cohen, I., Smith, H., & Porterfield, K. (2006). Traumatic experiences and psychological distress in an urban refugee population seeking treatment services. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 194(3), 188–194.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.nmd.0000202494.75723.83.Google Scholar
  54. Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., Merikangas, K. R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of 12-month DSM–IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617–627.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.617.Google Scholar
  55. Khawaja, N. G., Ibrahim, O., & Schweitzer, R. D. (2017). Mental wellbeing of students from refugee and migrant backgrounds: the mediating role of resilience. School Mental Health: A Multidisciplinary Research and Practice Journal, 9(3), 284–293.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-017-9215-6.Google Scholar
  56. Kuwabara, S. A. (2012). Conceptual and methodological considerations for studying positive adaptation in displaced youth. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University.Google Scholar
  57. Lambert, J. E., & Alhassoon, O. M. (2015). Trauma-focused therapy for refugees: met-analytic findings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62, 28–37.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cou0000048.Google Scholar
  58. Leaman, S. C., & Gee, C. B. (2012). Religious coping and risk factors for psychological distress among African torture survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 4(5), 457–465.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026622.Google Scholar
  59. Lerner, R. M., Dowling, E. M., & Anderson, P. M. (2003). Positive youth development: thriving as the basis of personhood and civil society. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 7(3), 172–180.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0703-8.Google Scholar
  60. Macksoud, M. (1992). Assessing war trauma in children: a case study of Lebanese children. Journal of Refugee Studies, 5(1), 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/5.1.1.Google Scholar
  61. Macksoud, M., & Aber, J. L. (1996). The war experiences and psychological development of children in Lebanon. Child Development, 67(1), 70–88.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.1996.tb01720.x.Google Scholar
  62. Macksoud, M., Aber, J. L., Dyregrov, A., & Raundalen, M. (1990). Post-traumatic stress disorder reaction checklist for children. New York: Columbia University, Center for the Study of Human Rights, Project on Children and War.Google Scholar
  63. Macksoud, M., Aber, L., Dyregrov, A., & Raundalen, M. (1990). The Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Checklist for Children (PTSRC). New York: Columbia University, Center for the Study of Human Rights, Project on Children and War.Google Scholar
  64. Maragel, M., & Manachi, S. (2018). The resilience of Syrian refugee children in Lebanon. In M. Pace & S. Sen (Eds.), Syrian refugee children in the Middle East and Europe (pp. 32–45). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Masten, A. S. (2011). Resilience in children threatened by extreme adversity: frameworks for research, practice, and translational synergy. Development and Psychopathology, 23(2), 493–506.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954579411000198.Google Scholar
  66. Masten, A. S. (2012). Risk and resilience in development. In P. D. Zelazo (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199958450.001.0001.Google Scholar
  67. Masten, A. S., & Cicchetti, D. (2016). Resilience in development: progress and transformation. In D. Cicchetti (Ed.), Developmental psychopathology (Vol. 4, 3rd ed., pp. 271–333). New York, NY: Wiley.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119125556.devpsy406.Google Scholar
  68. Masten, A. S., & Narayan, A. J. (2012). Child development in the context of disaster, war, and terrorism: pathways of risk and resilience. Annual Review of Psychology, 63, 227–257.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-120710-100356.Google Scholar
  69. Masten, A. S., & Obradovic, J. (2008). Disaster preparation and recovery: lessons from research on resilience in human development. Ecology and Society, 13(1), 9–24.  https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-02282-130109.Google Scholar
  70. McLaughlin, K. A., Koenen, K. C., Hill, E. D., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Zaslavsky, A. M., & Kessler, R. C. (2013). Trauma exposures and posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 52(8), 815–830.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaac.2013.05.011.Google Scholar
  71. Montgomery, E. (1998). Refugee children from the Middle East. Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine Supplementum, 54, 1–152.Google Scholar
  72. Montgomery, E. (2008). Long-term effects of organized violence on young Middle Eastern refugees’ mental health. Social Science & Medicine, 67(10), 1596–1603.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.07.020.Google Scholar
  73. Norris, F. H., Steven, S. P., Pfefferbaum, B., Wyche, K. F., & Pfefferbaum, R. L. (2008). Community resilience as a metaphor, theory, set of capacities, and strategy for disaster readiness. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 127–150.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10464-007-9156-6.Google Scholar
  74. Papadopoulou, A. (2004). Smuggling into Europe: transit migrants in Greece. Journal of Refugee Studies, 17(2), 167–184.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jrs/17.2.167.Google Scholar
  75. Pieloch, K. A., McCullough, M. B., & Marks, A. K. (2016). Resilience of children with refugee statuses: a research review. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 57(4), 330–339.  https://doi.org/10.1037/cap0000073.Google Scholar
  76. Punamaki, R. L., Palosaari, E., Diab, M., Peltonen, K., & Qouta, S. (2015). Trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) after major war among Palestinian children: trauma, family- and child-related predictors. Journal of Affective Disorders, 172, 133–140.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.021.Google Scholar
  77. Qouta, S., Punamaki, R. L., & El Sarraj, E. (2003). Prevalence and determinants of PTSD among Palestinian children exposed to military violence. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 12, 265–272.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-003-0328-0.Google Scholar
  78. Qouta, S., Punamaki, R. L., & El Sarraj, E. (2008). Child development and family mental health in war and military violence: the Palestinian experience. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32(4), 310–312.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0165025408090973.Google Scholar
  79. Şalcioğlu, E., & Başoğlu, M. (2008). Psychological effects of earthquakes in children: prospects for brief behavioral treatment. World Journal of Pediatrics, 4(3), 165–172.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12519-008-0032-8.Google Scholar
  80. Schmitt-Rodermund, E., & Silbereisen, R. K. (2008). Well-adapted adolescent ethnic German immigrants in spite of adversity: the protective effects of human, social, and financial capital. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5(2), 186–209.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405620701557290.Google Scholar
  81. Smith, P., Perrin, S., Yule, W., Hacam, B., & Stuvland, R. (2002). War exposure among children from Bosnia-Hercegovina: psychological adjustment in a community sample. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 15, 147–156.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1014812209051.Google Scholar
  82. Steel, Z., Chey, T., Silove, D., Marnane, C., Bryant, R. A., & Van Ommeren, M. (2009). Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 302, 537–549.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.1132.Google Scholar
  83. Thabet, A. A. K., Stretch, D., & Vostanis, P. (2000). Child mental health problems in Arab children: application of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 46(4), 266–280.  https://doi.org/10.1177/002076400004600404.Google Scholar
  84. Tol, W. A., Song, S., & Jordans, M. J. (2013). Annual research review: resilience and mental health in children and adolescents living in areas of armed conflict—a systematic review of findings in low- and middle-income countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 54(4), 445–460.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12053.Google Scholar
  85. Tozer, M., Khawaja, N., & Schweitzer, R. (2017). Protective factors contributing to wellbeing among refugee youth in Australia. Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools., 28, 66–83.  https://doi.org/10.1017/jgc.2016.31.Google Scholar
  86. Ungar, M., & Liebenberg, L. (2009). Cross-cultural consultation leading to the development of a valid measure of youth resilience: the international resilience project. Studia Psychologica, 51(2–3), 259–268.Google Scholar
  87. United Nations High Commissar for Refugees (2018). Situation Syria regional refugee response. Retrieved from https://data2.unhcr.org/en/situations/syria
  88. Vallerand, R. J. (1989). Vers une méthodologie de validation trans-culturelle de questionnaires psychologiques: Implications pour la recherche en langue française [Toward a methodology for the transcultural validation of psychological questionnaires: implications for research in the French language]. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 30(4), 662–680.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0079856.Google Scholar
  89. Vernberg, E. (2002). Intervention approaches following disasters. In A. M. LaGreca, W. K. Silverman, E. M. Vernberg, & M. C. Roberts (Eds.), Helping children cope with disasters and terrorism (pp. 55–72). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.  https://doi.org/10.1037/10454-003.Google Scholar
  90. Vindevogel, S. (2017). Resilience in the context of war: a critical analysis of contemporary conceptions and interventions to promote resilience among war-affected children and their surroundings. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 23(1), 76–84.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pac0000214.Google Scholar
  91. Weine, S. M., Ware, N., Hakizimana, I., Tugenberrg, T., Currie, M., Dahnweih, G., Wagner, M., Polutnik, C., & Wulu, J. (2014). Fostering resilience: Protective agents, resources, and mechanisms for adolescent refugees psychosocial well-being. Adolescent Psychiatry, 4, 164–176.  https://doi.org/10.2174/221067660403140912162410.
  92. Weinstein, C. S., Fucetola, R., & Mollica, R. (2001). Neuropsychological issues in the assessment of refugees and victims of mass violence. Neuropsychology Review, 11, 131–141.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1016650623996.Google Scholar
  93. World Health Organization (2017). Migrant populations, including children, at higher risk of mental health disorders. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/noncommunicable-diseases/mental-health/news/news/2017/04/migrant-populations,-including-children,-at-higher-risk-of-mental-health-disorders
  94. Yousafzai, A., Rasheed, M., & Bhutta, Z. (2013). Annual research review: improved nutrition—a pathway to resilience. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 41, 695–702.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12019.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology – Resilience Research UnitUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations