Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Characterization of engine oil additive packages on diesel particulate emissions

  • 12 Accesses


This study investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on particulate matter (PM) characteristics from a light-duty diesel engine. The test engine was a 1.6 L Euro-5 diesel engine operated from low- to high-speed and high-load conditions. Specially formulated nonadditive containing base oil and genuine oil were evaluated. For diesel PM characterization, physicochemical analytic procedures were conducted on engine oil formulation, oil flushing, PMs sampling, morphology, and particle constituent determination. Size-resolved particle number (PN) concentration at the engine-out position was evaluated by differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). Nucleation mode particles originating from engine oil consumption during the expansion stroke had a higher concentration from genuine oil than those from base oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the morphology patterns and atomic compositions with engine oil packages. From the SEM analysis, spherical PM of nucleation and accumulation mode particles were agglomerated on a quartz filter. In the XPS spectrum, more engine oil additive fractions of Ca, P, and Zn were found in the PM sample from genuine oil. In conclusion, the variation of physicochemical engine oil properties and additive amounts had strong contributions to engine oil derived PN emissions, morphology, and additive metal compositions in the exhaust gas stream.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.



Break mean effective pressure


Break specific fuel consumption






Carbon monoxide


Common rail diesel injection


Differential mobility spectrometer


Diesel oxidation catalyst


Exhaust gas recirculation


Gasoline particulate filter


High pressure EGR


Kinematic viscosity


Lean NOx trap




Nitrogen oxide






Particulate matter


Particle number




Sulfated ash, phosphorus and sulfur


Selective catalytic reduction


Scanning electron microscopy


Total acid number


Total base number


Transmission electron microscopy


Thermos gravimetric analysis


Total hydrocarbons


Variable geometry turbocharger


Viscosity index


X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


X-ray fluorescence


Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates




  1. [1]

    J. Y. Ko et al., Effect of active regeneration on time-resolved characteristics of gaseous emissions and size-resolved particle emissions from light-duty diesel engine, Journal of Aerosol Science, 91 (2016) 62–77.

  2. [2]

    C. L. Myung et al., Review on characterization of nano-particle emissions and PM morphology from internal combustion engines: Part 1, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 15 (2) (2014) 203–218.

  3. [3]

    N. Custer et al., Lubricant-derived ash impact on gasoline particulate filter performance, SAE International Journal of Engines, 9 (3) (2016) 1604–1614.

  4. [4]

    J. Xing et al., Morphology and composition of particles emitted from a port fuel injection gasoline vehicle under real-world driving test cycles, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 76 (2019) 339–348.

  5. [5]

    K. Froelund et al., Impact of Lube Oil on Advanced Light-duty CIDI Engine Emissions, Southwest Research Inst San Antonio TX Belvoir Fuels and Lubricants (2000).

  6. [6]

    H. John, Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals, 2nd Edition, McGraw-Hill Science, New York (2018).

  7. [7]

    C. L. Myung et al., Evaluation of the real-time de-NOx performance characteristics of a LNT-equipped Euro-6 diesel passenger car with various vehicle emissions certification cycles, Energy, 132 (2017) 356–369.

  8. [8]

    D. Lawson et al., Collaborative Lubricating Oil Study on Emissions (close) Final Report (2011).

  9. [9]

    H. Xu et al., Fuel injector deposits in direct-injection sparkignition engines, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 50 (2015) 63–80.

  10. [10]

    E. Yilmaz et al., The contribution of different oil consumption sources to total oil consumption in a spark ignition engine, SAE Transactions (2004) 1622–1638.

  11. [11]

    V. Chernyshev et al., Morphological and chemical composition of particulate matter in buses exhaust, Toxicology Reports, 6 (2019) 120–125.

  12. [12]

    C. Beatrice et al., Detailed characterization of particulate emissions of an automotive catalyzed DPF using actual regeneration strategies, Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science, 39 (2012) 45–53.

  13. [13]

    L. Dong et al., Effect of lubricating oil on the particle size distribution and total number concentration in a diesel engine, Fuel Processing Technology, 109 (2013) 78–83.

  14. [14]

    Y. S. Lim et al., The study of PM2.5 and exhaust emission characteristics in the motorcycles according to various lubricants, Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers, 21 (4) (2013) 70–76.

  15. [15]

    D. Uy et al., Characterization of gasoline soot and comparison to diesel soot: Morphology, chemistry, and wear, Tribology International, 80 (2014) 198–209.

  16. [16]

    A. Liati et al., Investigation of diesel ash particulate matter: a scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope study, Atmospheric Environment, 49 (2012) 391–402.

  17. [17]

    A. La Rocca et al., Characterisation of soot in oil from a gasoline direct injection engine using transmission electron microscopy, Tribology International, 86 (2015) 77–84.

  18. [18]

    A. Liati et al., Electron microscopic characterization of soot particulate matter emitted by modern direct injection gasoline engines, Combustion and Flame, 166 (2016) 307–315.

  19. [19]

    D. Y. Jin et al., Physicochemical analysis of two aged diesel particulate filters placed at close coupled and under floor positions of the vehicles, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 20 (2) (2019) 327–335.

  20. [20]

    B. Wang et al., Investigation of deposit effect on multi-hole injector spray characteristics and air/fuel mixing process, Fuel, 191 (2017) 10–24.

  21. [21]

    Y. Wang et al., Effects of viscosity index improver on morphology and graphitization degree of diesel particulate matter, Energy Procedia, 105 (2017) 4236–4241.

  22. [22]

    M. M. Maricq, Chemical characterization of particulate emissions from diesel engines: A review, Journal of Aerosol Science, 38 (11) (2007) 1079–1118.

  23. [23]

    A. Sappok et al., Characteristics and effects of ash accumulation on diesel particulate filter performance: Rapidly aged and field aged results, SAE Technical Paper, USA (2009).

  24. [24]

    E. Vouitsis et al., Effect of a DPF and low sulfur lube oil on PM physicochemical characteristics from a Euro 4 light duty diesel vehicle, SAE Technical Paper, USA (2007).

  25. [25]

    Y. Wang et al., Effect of lubricating oil additive package on the characterization of diesel particles, Applied Energy, 136 (2014) 682–691.

  26. [26]

    Q. Rizvi Syed, A Comprehensive Review of Lubricant Chemistry, Technology, Selection, and Design, 1st Edition, ASTM, USA (2009).

  27. [27]

    S. C. Tung et al., Automotive Lubricants and Testing: Gear Oil Screen Testing with FZG Back-to-Back Rig, SAE International (2012).

  28. [28]

    J. Y. Jang et al., Comparison of fuel efficiency and exhaust emissions between the aged and new DPF systems of Euro 5 diesel passenger car, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 18 (5) (2017) 751–758.

  29. [29]

    H. J. Jung et al., The influence of engine lubricating oil on diesel nanoparticle emissions and kinetics of oxidation, SAE Technical Paper, USA (2003).

  30. [30]

    P. Tan et al., Effect of lubricant sulfur on the morphology and elemental composition of diesel exhaust particles, Journal of Environmental Sciences, 55 (2017) 354–362.

  31. [31]

    W. S. Si, Physical-chemical characteristics of engine oil derived particulate matters in exhaust gases and DPF deposit from a light-duty diesel engine, Master Thesis, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University (2015).

  32. [32]

    K. Mollenhauer et al., Handbook of Diesel Engines, Springer Berlin (2010).

  33. [33]

    C. L. Myung and S. S. Park, Exhaust nanoparticle emissions from internal combustion engines: A review, International Journal of Automotive Technology, 13 (1) (2012) 9.

  34. [34]

    L. Dong et al., Comparative study on particles formation in a diesel engine when lubricating oil involved in fuel combustion, Journal of Chemistry, 2015 (2015).

  35. [35]

    R. M. Mortier et al., Chemistry and Technology of Lubricants, 3rd Edition, Springer, London (2010).

Download references


This research was supported by the BK21 plus program (21A20131712520) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea, Korea Auto-Oil Program, and the Korea University Grant.

Author information

Correspondence to Simsoo Park.

Additional information

Recommended by Editor Yong Tae Kang

Simsoo Park received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Seoul National University and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He served as a Chief Research Engineer at Hyundai Motor Company and a Technical Advisor of Hyundai-Kia Motor Company. He was an Editor-in-Chief of IJAT at KSAE and President of KSAE. He is currently a Professor in School of Mechanical Engineering at Korea University.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Kim, K., Si, W., Jin, D. et al. Characterization of engine oil additive packages on diesel particulate emissions. J Mech Sci Technol 34, 931–939 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-020-0142-3

Download citation


  • Engine oil
  • Additive package
  • Particle size distribution
  • Morphology
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy