This study investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on particulate matter (PM) characteristics from a light-duty diesel engine. The test engine was a 1.6 L Euro-5 diesel engine operated from low- to high-speed and high-load conditions. Specially formulated nonadditive containing base oil and genuine oil were evaluated. For diesel PM characterization, physicochemical analytic procedures were conducted on engine oil formulation, oil flushing, PMs sampling, morphology, and particle constituent determination. Size-resolved particle number (PN) concentration at the engine-out position was evaluated by differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). Nucleation mode particles originating from engine oil consumption during the expansion stroke had a higher concentration from genuine oil than those from base oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the morphology patterns and atomic compositions with engine oil packages. From the SEM analysis, spherical PM of nucleation and accumulation mode particles were agglomerated on a quartz filter. In the XPS spectrum, more engine oil additive fractions of Ca, P, and Zn were found in the PM sample from genuine oil. In conclusion, the variation of physicochemical engine oil properties and additive amounts had strong contributions to engine oil derived PN emissions, morphology, and additive metal compositions in the exhaust gas stream.
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Break mean effective pressure
Break specific fuel consumption
Common rail diesel injection
Differential mobility spectrometer
Diesel oxidation catalyst
Exhaust gas recirculation
Gasoline particulate filter
High pressure EGR
Lean NOx trap
Sulfated ash, phosphorus and sulfur
Selective catalytic reduction
Scanning electron microscopy
Total acid number
Total base number
Transmission electron microscopy
Thermos gravimetric analysis
Variable geometry turbocharger
X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates
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This research was supported by the BK21 plus program (21A20131712520) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea, Korea Auto-Oil Program, and the Korea University Grant.
Recommended by Editor Yong Tae Kang
Simsoo Park received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Seoul National University and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He served as a Chief Research Engineer at Hyundai Motor Company and a Technical Advisor of Hyundai-Kia Motor Company. He was an Editor-in-Chief of IJAT at KSAE and President of KSAE. He is currently a Professor in School of Mechanical Engineering at Korea University.
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Kim, K., Si, W., Jin, D. et al. Characterization of engine oil additive packages on diesel particulate emissions. J Mech Sci Technol 34, 931–939 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-020-0142-3
- Engine oil
- Additive package
- Particle size distribution
- Scanning electron microscopy
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy