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Characterization of engine oil additive packages on diesel particulate emissions

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Abstract

This study investigated the impact of engine oil formulation on particulate matter (PM) characteristics from a light-duty diesel engine. The test engine was a 1.6 L Euro-5 diesel engine operated from low- to high-speed and high-load conditions. Specially formulated nonadditive containing base oil and genuine oil were evaluated. For diesel PM characterization, physicochemical analytic procedures were conducted on engine oil formulation, oil flushing, PMs sampling, morphology, and particle constituent determination. Size-resolved particle number (PN) concentration at the engine-out position was evaluated by differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). Nucleation mode particles originating from engine oil consumption during the expansion stroke had a higher concentration from genuine oil than those from base oil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to analyze the morphology patterns and atomic compositions with engine oil packages. From the SEM analysis, spherical PM of nucleation and accumulation mode particles were agglomerated on a quartz filter. In the XPS spectrum, more engine oil additive fractions of Ca, P, and Zn were found in the PM sample from genuine oil. In conclusion, the variation of physicochemical engine oil properties and additive amounts had strong contributions to engine oil derived PN emissions, morphology, and additive metal compositions in the exhaust gas stream.

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Abbreviations

BMEP:

Break mean effective pressure

BSFC:

Break specific fuel consumption

C:

Carbon

Ca:

Calcium

CO:

Carbon monoxide

CRDI:

Common rail diesel injection

DMS:

Differential mobility spectrometer

DOC:

Diesel oxidation catalyst

EGR:

Exhaust gas recirculation

GPF:

Gasoline particulate filter

HP-EGR:

High pressure EGR

KV:

Kinematic viscosity

LNT:

Lean NOx trap

Mg:

Magnesium

NOx:

Nitrogen oxide

O:

Oxygen

P:

Phosphorous

PM:

Particulate matter

PN:

Particle number

S:

Sulfur

SAPS:

Sulfated ash, phosphorus and sulfur

SCR:

Selective catalytic reduction

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

TAN:

Total acid number

TBN:

Total base number

TEM:

Transmission electron microscopy

TGA:

Thermos gravimetric analysis

THC:

Total hydrocarbons

VGT:

Variable geometry turbocharger

VI:

Viscosity index

XPS:

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

XRF:

X-ray fluorescence

ZDDP:

Zinc dialkyl dithiophosphates

Zn:

Zinc

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Acknowledgments

This research was supported by the BK21 plus program (21A20131712520) through the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education of Korea, Korea Auto-Oil Program, and the Korea University Grant.

Author information

Correspondence to Simsoo Park.

Additional information

Recommended by Editor Yong Tae Kang

Simsoo Park received his B.S. and M.S. degrees from Seoul National University and a Ph.D. from the State University of New York at Stony Brook. He served as a Chief Research Engineer at Hyundai Motor Company and a Technical Advisor of Hyundai-Kia Motor Company. He was an Editor-in-Chief of IJAT at KSAE and President of KSAE. He is currently a Professor in School of Mechanical Engineering at Korea University.

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Kim, K., Si, W., Jin, D. et al. Characterization of engine oil additive packages on diesel particulate emissions. J Mech Sci Technol 34, 931–939 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12206-020-0142-3

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Keywords

  • Engine oil
  • Additive package
  • Particle size distribution
  • Morphology
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy