Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 33, Issue 11, pp 5361–5368 | Cite as

Role of additive concentration in slow-speed sliding contact under boundary lubrication conditions

  • Bora Lee
  • Yonghun Yu
  • Dae-Seung Cho
  • Yongjoo ChoEmail author


The adsorption model for boundary lubrication was proposed considering the variations of additive content with sliding distance. With surface roughness and wear debris caused by the adhesive wear of the oxide layer, a mass conservation of additive dissolved in lubricant was established. Any rise in surface temperature due to sliding friction was ignored for this study’s purposes. It was found that the additive concentration decreased rapidly with sliding distance because wear particles adsorbed and consumed the additives. This reduction of the additive concentration raised the friction coefficient by reducing the surface area protected by the adsorption layer without any temperature effect. This analysis model was verified by comparing it with the test results of existing literature. Because this model is effective at extremely low-speed conditions, these results can help explain the failure mechanism in room-temperature, lowspeed boundary lubrication.


Additive concentration Adsorption Boundary lubrication Film defect Low speed 



Surface area of a wear particle


Additive concentration


Additive concentration in mole fraction


Heat of adsorption


Fraction of oxygen in the oxide layer


Wear coefficient for solid-solid contact


Total number of adsorption sites per area

The number of wear particles per unit volume


Average contact pressure


Flow pressure under static loading


Activation energy of oxidation


Gas constant


Surface temperature


Vibration time of adsorbed molecules


Sliding speed


Volume of a control volume


Volume of a wear particle


Diameter of adsorbed molecules


Fractional film defect

x, ∆yz

Length of each axis of the control volume


Difference of adsorption heat of additive and base oil


Total entropy change associated with adsorption


Fractional surface coverage by additive


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This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) through GCRC-SOP (No. 2011-0030013).


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Copyright information

© KSME & Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bora Lee
    • 1
  • Yonghun Yu
    • 2
  • Dae-Seung Cho
    • 2
  • Yongjoo Cho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Mechanical EngineeringPusan National UniversityBusanKorea
  2. 2.Dept. of Naval Architecture & Ocean EngineeringPusan National UniversityBusanKorea

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