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Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 33, Issue 9, pp 4495–4510 | Cite as

Development of a program to simulate the dynamic behavior of heavy-duty gas turbines during the entire start-up operation including very early part

  • Jeong Ho Kim
  • Tong Seop KimEmail author
Article

Abstract

This study presents a simulation tool for the dynamic behavior during the start-up of heavy-duty gas turbines. The simulation was implemented in MATLAB and can accurately predict the full start-up procedure from zero speed to idling. Each component of the system was modeled as a single control volume or multiple control volumes to which mass and energy balances were applied. The governing equations are solved numerically by the multi-variable Newton Raphson method. The compressor and turbine are divided into several groups for the bleeding and turbine cooling model. The program can simulate the early part of the start-up process from zero rpm to ignition by using the starter module in the cranking process, which can be hard to simulate using commercial software. A heat transfer model was applied to each control volume of the major components to consider the heat soakage effect accurately. The full start-up process of an industrial gas turbine was simulated, and the results were compared with actual operating data for validation. The program is expected to be used for various purposes, especially for estimating an adequate starter capacity and scheduling an optimal start-up procedure of heavy-duty gas turbines.

Keywords

Gas turbine Control Dynamic behavior Start-up Heat soakage Starter 

Nomenclature

a,b,c,d

Coefficients

a’, b’, c’

Positions

A

Area [m2]

Acs

Component cross-sectional area [m2]

Asf

Area exposed to flow [m2]

c

Specific heat [kJ/kg K]

\(\bar{c}_p\)

Molar specific heat at constant pressure [kJ/kmol K]

D

Diameter [m]

e

Error

FSNL

Full speed no load

f

Fraction of rotor coolant chargeable to power [-]

G

Torque [Nm]

Gen

Generator

H

Heat transfer coefficient [W/m2 K]

HPC

High pressure compressor

h

Enthalpy [kJ/kg]

\(\bar{h}\)

Molar specific enthalpy [kJ/kmol]

I

Polar moment of inertia [kgm2]

IGV

Inlet guide vane

IPC

Intermediate pressure compressor

i

Compressor group index

j

Turbine stage index

K

Gain

k

Thermal conductivity [W/m K]

MW

Molecular weight [kg/kmol]

Mass flow rate [kg/s]

m

Mass [kg]

N

Revolution per minute [1/min]

n

Number of compressor group or turbine stage

Nu

Nusselt number [-]

L

Length [m]

LHV

Low heating value [kJ/kg]

LPC

Low pressure compressor

OP

Data of positions

P

Pressure [kPa]

PR

Pressure ratio [-]

Pr

Prandtl number [-]

\(\dot{Q}\)

Heat [MW]

R

Gas constant [J/kg K]

\(\bar{R}\)

Molar Gas constant [J/kmol K]

Re

Reynolds number [-]

S

Specific entropy [kJ/kg K]

\(\bar{S}\)

Molar specific entropy [kJ/kmol K]

sf

Scaling factor

T

Temperature [K]

t

Time [s]

WA

Semi-dimensionless mass flow rate [ms K0.5]

Power output [MW]

X

Variable

x

Mole fraction [-]

Superscript

α, β, γ

Exponents

b, c

Constants

n, m

Exponents

Subscripts

0

Reference point for property calculation

C

Coolant

Comb

Combustor

Comp

Compressor

cond

Conduction heat transfer

conv

Convection heat transfer

D

Derivative

d

Design

H

Hydraulic

I

Integral

IGV

Inlet guide vane

in

Inlet

k

Gas component

N

Nozzle blade

o

Original map

out

Outlet

P

Proportional

R

Rotor blade

s

Isentropic

sc

Scaled map

Turb

Turbine

Greek

η

Efficiency [%]

μ

Fluid viscosity [Ns/m2]

ν

Velocity [m/s]

ρ

Density [kg/m3]

ω

Angular velocity [rad/s]

Ω

Combustor loading [-]

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Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 2013101010170A).

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Copyright information

© KSME & Springer 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate SchoolInha UniversityIncheonKorea
  2. 2.Dept. of Mechanical EngineeringInha UniversityIncheonKorea

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