The definition of the fill factor (FF) and a more accurate formula were used to study the temperature dependency of FF. To investigate FF changes as a function of the temperature in the photovoltaic (PV) modules, we used an equivalent circuit diagram that considers series and parallel resistances. Using a measurement setup that allows precise temperature control of the PV modules, the parameters Voc, Isc, Vm, Im were measured between 6 and 40 °C. Using the theoretical model, a formula for the FF temperature gradient, ∂FF/∂t, could be found. The experimental results show that FF decreases with increasing temperature, and fitting the obtained data points results in a straight line. The FF has a negative temperature coefficient. Specifically, the obtained “defined value” for ∂FF/∂t is −0.00093 1/°C, while the theoretical value is −0.0015 1/°C.
PV modules Fill factor Temperature gradient
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