Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 213–224 | Cite as

Fatigue strength predictions of FOD dents using ΔK threshold methods considering residual stresses

  • Xu Jia
  • Xuteng HuEmail author
  • Zijia Zhu
  • Yingdong Song


Fatigue strength predictions of TC4 FOD-dent specimens using ΔK threshold methods considering residual stresses were the main emphasis in this paper. Both the experimental simulation and the fatigue test were conducted to evaluate the HCF performance of the real FOD dent. The geometrical models of FOD dents were established for the elastic stress concentration analysis. Residual stresses around the dent were numerical simulated or reservedly solved from the laboratory test data and subsequently established as a function of the dent depth. With numerical simulated residual stresses, the prediction results fall into an error interval of about ±30 %. With the reserved residual stress, the method has a smaller error interval of about ±20 %. Both the two procedures can fortunately meet the exit criteria which is probably because the potential micro-damages like micro crack and adiabatic shear band etc. could be counted as sharp cracks.


FOD dents HCF strength ΔK threshold Residual stress Numerical simulation 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    T. Nicholas, High cycle fatigue: A mechanics of materials perspective, Elsevier, Oxford, UK (2006).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J. D. Kang, S. X. Chen, Z. H. Xu and X. Y. Rao, Research progress of foreign object damage and its maintainability in compressor blades, Gas Turbine Experiment and Research, 1 (1998) 59–62.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    US Department of Defense, MIL-HDBK-1783B w/CHANGE 2, Engine structural integrity program (ENSIP), US Department of Defense, Washington, USA (2004).Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    X. T. Hu and Y. D. Song, Essential characteristic of foreign object damage tolerance design for airfoils in aeroengine and development of design criteria, Journal of Aerospace Power, 12 (2008) 2153–2161.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    T. Nicholas et al., Impact damage on titanium leading edges from small hard objects, Experimental Mechanics, 20 (10) (1980) 357–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    E. Seinturier, J. Dupeux and J. P. Lombard, Simple design rules for FOD/HCF interaction, evaluation, control and prevention of high cycle fatigue in gas turbine engines for land, sea and air vehicles, Meeting Proceedings RTO-MP-AVT-121, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, 33 (2005) 1–14.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    B. A. Cowles, High cycle fatigue in aircraft gas turbines—an industry perspective, International Journal of Fracture, 80 (1996) 147–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    J. Warren et al., Best practices for the mitigation and control of foreign object dam-age-induced high cycle fatigue in gas turbine engine compression system airfoils, Neuilly-sur-Seine Cedex, TR-AVT-094, Notch Atlantic Treaty Organisation, Research and Technology Organization, France (2005).Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    J. O. Peters and R. O. Ritchie, Foreign-object damage and high-cycle fatigue: role of microstructure in Ti-6Al-4V, International Journal of Fatigue, 23 (1) (2001) 413–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    C. M. Martinez et al., Effects of ballistic impact damage on fatigue crack initiation in Ti-6Al-4V simulated engine blades, Materials Science & Engineering A, 325 (1–2) (2002) 465–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    B. L. Boyce et al., The residual stress state due to a spherical hard-body impact, Mechanics of Materials, 33 (8) (2001) 441–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    A. N. Majila et al., Influence of foreign object damage on high cycle fatigue of Ti-6Al-4V alloy, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals (2015) 1–7.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. C. Birkbeck, Effects of FOD on the fatigue crack initiation of ballistically impacted Ti-6Al-4V simulated engine blades, University of Dayton, USA (2002).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Z. J. Zhu, Effect of foreign object damage to the high cycle fatigue strength of fan blade and prediction, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China (2016).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    J. Ruschau, S. R. Thompson and T. Nicholas, High cycle fatigue limit stresses for airfoils subjected to foreign object damage, International Journal of Fatigue, 25 (9–11) (2003) 955–962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    R. E. Peterson, Notch-sensitivity, G. Sines and J. L. Waisman (Ed.), Metal fatigue, McGraw-Hill, New York, USA (1959) 293–306.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. O. Peters et al., Role of foreign-object damage on thresholds for high-cycle fatigue in Ti-6Al-4V, Metallurgical & Materials Transactions A, 31 (6) (2000) 1571–1583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    J. P. Gallagher et al., Improved high-cycle fatigue (HCF) life prediction, NASA STI/Recon Technical Report (AFRLML-WP-TR-2001-4159), USA (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    D. C. Maxwell and T. Nicholas, A rapid method for generation of a Haigh diagram for high cycle fatigue, Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics, ASTM STP 1321, 29 (1999) 626–41, American Society for Testing and Materials West Conshohocken, PA.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    M. H. ElHaddad, N. F. Dowling, T. H. Topper and K. N. Smith, J integral applications for short fatigue cracks at notches, International Journal of Fracture, 16 (1980) 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    B. L. Boyce and R. O. Ritchie, Effect of load ratio and maximum stress intensity on the fatigue threshold in Ti-6Al-4V, Engineering Fracture Mechanics, 68 (2) (2001) 129–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    S. R. Thompson, J. J. Ruschau and T. Nicholas, Influence of residual stresses on high cycle fatigue strength of Ti-6Al-4V subjected to foreign object damage, International Journal of Fatigue, 23 (1) (2001) 405–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    D. J. Bammann and E. C. Aifantis, A model for finite-deformation plasticity, Acta Mechanica, 69 (1987) 97–117.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    D. J. Bammann, M. L. Chiesa, M. F. Horstemeyer and L. L. Weingarten, Failure in ductile materials using finite element methods, Structural Crashworthiness and Failure, Elsevier Applied Science, London, UK (1993).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    X. T. Hu, Foreign object damage and its effect on high cycle fatigue strength of titanium alloy engine blades, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China (2009).Google Scholar
  26. [26]
    D. Taylor and M. O’Donnell, Notch geometry effects in fatigue: A conservative design approach, Engineering Failure Analysis, 1 (4) (1994) 275–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xu Jia
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xuteng Hu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zijia Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yingdong Song
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Aerospace Power SystemNanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Energy and Power EngineeringNanjingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Mechanics and Control of Mechanical StructuresNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations