Influence of process parameters on temperature and residual stress distributions of the deposited part by a Ti-6Al-4V wire feeding type direct energy deposition process
- 41 Downloads
Distributions of temperature and residual stress of the deposition bead and the substrate during a wire feeding type direct energy deposition (DED) process are crucial to avoid undesired thermal effects and premature failure of the fabricated part due to repeated heating and cooling cycles during successive deposition. The goal of the paper is to investigate the influence of process parameters on distributions of temperature and residual stress of the deposited bead and the substrate for a single layer deposition through thermo-mechanical finite element analyses (FEAs). Ti-6Al-4V is chosen as the material of the wire. The effects of the power of the laser, the travel speed of the table and the length of the bead on the formation of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the stress influenced region (SIR) are quantitatively examined using the results of FEAs. From the results of the examination, an appropriate gap between adjacent beads for successive deposition is proposed to reduce undesirable thermal effects and residual stress of the part fabricated by the Ti-6Al-4V wire feeding type DED process.
KeywordsThermo-mechanical analysis Process parameters Wire feeding type direct energy deposition Ti-6Al-4V Estimation of appropriate gap
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- K. M. B. Taminger and R. A. Hafley, Electron beam freeform fabrication: A rapid metal deposition process, NASA Technical Report, Document ID 20040042496 (2003).Google Scholar
- K. S. Kumar, T. E. Sparks and F. Liou, Parameter determination and experimental validation of a wire feed additive manufacturing model, Proc. of Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, USA (2015) 1129–1153.Google Scholar
- D.–I. Kim, H.–J. Lee, D.–G. Ahn, J.–S. Kim and E. G. Kang, Preliminary study on improvement of surface characteristics of stellite21 deposited layer by powder feeding type of direct energy deposition process using plasma electron beam, Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, 22 (11) (2016) 951–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- E. R. Denlinger, J. C. Heigel and P. Michaleris, Residual stress and distortion modeling of electron beam direct manufacturing Ti–6Al–4V, Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 229 (10) (2015) 1803–1813.Google Scholar
- Q. Yang, P. Zhang, L. Cheng, Z. Min, M. Chyu and A. C. To, Finite element modeling and validation of thermomechanical behavior of Ti–6Al–4V in directed energy deposition additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 12 Part B (2016) 169–177.Google Scholar
- A. M. Deus and J. Mazumder, Three–dimensional finite element models for the calculation of temperature and residual stress fields in laser cladding, Proc. of International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro–Optics, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA (2006) 496–505.Google Scholar
- J. Ding, P. Colegrove, J. Mehnen, S. Ganguly, P. M. Sequeira Almeida, F. Wang and S. Williams, Thermomechanical analysis of wire and arc additive layer manufacturing process on large multi–layer parts, Computational Materials Science, 63 (12) (2011) 3315–3322.Google Scholar
- ESI Group, SYSWELD Visual–Weld 12.0(2016).Google Scholar
- M. J. Donachie, Titanium: A technical guide, Second Ed., ASM International, Ohio, USA (2000).Google Scholar
- G. Vastola, G. Zhang, Q. X. Pei and Y.–W. Zhang, Controlling of residual stress in additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V by finite element modeling, Additive Manufacturing, 12 Part B (2016) 231–239.Google Scholar
- Carpenter Technology Corporation, Titanium Alloy Ti 6Al–4V datasheet, http://cartech.ides.com/datasheet.aspx?i=101 &E=269&FMT=PRINT, Accessed on 7 January (2018).Google Scholar