Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology

, Volume 32, Issue 11, pp 5363–5372 | Cite as

Influence of process parameters on temperature and residual stress distributions of the deposited part by a Ti-6Al-4V wire feeding type direct energy deposition process

  • Bih Lii Chua
  • Ho Jin Lee
  • Dong-Gyu AhnEmail author
  • Jae Gu Kim


Distributions of temperature and residual stress of the deposition bead and the substrate during a wire feeding type direct energy deposition (DED) process are crucial to avoid undesired thermal effects and premature failure of the fabricated part due to repeated heating and cooling cycles during successive deposition. The goal of the paper is to investigate the influence of process parameters on distributions of temperature and residual stress of the deposited bead and the substrate for a single layer deposition through thermo-mechanical finite element analyses (FEAs). Ti-6Al-4V is chosen as the material of the wire. The effects of the power of the laser, the travel speed of the table and the length of the bead on the formation of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and the stress influenced region (SIR) are quantitatively examined using the results of FEAs. From the results of the examination, an appropriate gap between adjacent beads for successive deposition is proposed to reduce undesirable thermal effects and residual stress of the part fabricated by the Ti-6Al-4V wire feeding type DED process.


Thermo-mechanical analysis Process parameters Wire feeding type direct energy deposition Ti-6Al-4V Estimation of appropriate gap 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    D. D. Gu, W. Meiners, K. Wissenbach and R. Poprawe, Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: Materials, processes and mechanisms, International Materials Reviews, 57 (3) (2012) 133–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    W. E. Frazier, Metal additive manufacturing: A review, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 23 (6) (2014) 1917–1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    M. Matsumoto, S. Yang, K. Martinsen and Y. Kainuma, Trends and research challenges in remanufacturing, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing–Green Technology, 3 (1) (2016) 129–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    D. G. Ahn, Direct metal additive manufacturing processes and their sustainable applications for green technology: A review, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing–Green Technology, 3 (4) (2016) 381–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    D. G. Ahn, H. J. Lee, J. R. Cho and D. S. Guk, Improvement of the wear resistance of hot forging dies using a locally selective deposition technology with transition layers, CIRP Annals, 65 (1) (2016) 257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    C. M. Lee, W. S. Woo, J. T. Baek and E. J. Kim, Laser and arc manufacturing processes: A review, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 17 (7) (2016) 973–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    T. Shin, S. J. Park, K. S. Kang, J. S. Kim, Y. Kim, Y. Lim and D. Lim, A laser–aided direct metal tooling technology for artificial joint surface coating, International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, 18 (2) (2017) 233–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    S. H. Mok, G. Bi, J. Folkes and I. Pashby, Deposition of Ti–6Al–4V using a high power diode laser and wire, Part I: Investigation on the process characteristics, Journal of Surface and Coatings Technology, 202 (2008) 3933–3939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    K. M. B. Taminger and R. A. Hafley, Electron beam freeform fabrication: A rapid metal deposition process, NASA Technical Report, Document ID 20040042496 (2003).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    K. S. Kumar, T. E. Sparks and F. Liou, Parameter determination and experimental validation of a wire feed additive manufacturing model, Proc. of Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, Texas, USA (2015) 1129–1153.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    D.–I. Kim, H.–J. Lee, D.–G. Ahn, J.–S. Kim and E. G. Kang, Preliminary study on improvement of surface characteristics of stellite21 deposited layer by powder feeding type of direct energy deposition process using plasma electron beam, Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, 22 (11) (2016) 951–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    D. Ding, Z. Pan, D. Cuiuri and H. Li, Wire–feed additive manufacturing of metal components: technologies, developments and future interests, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 81 (1–4) (2015) 465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    W. J. Sames, F. A. List, S. Pannala, R. R. Dehoff and S. S. Babu, The metallurgy and processing science of metal additive manufacturing, International Materials Reviews, 61 (5) (2016) 315–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. Ding, P. Colegrove, J. Mehnen, S. Williams, F. Wang and P. Sequeira Almeida, A computationally efficient finite element model of wire and arc additive manufacture, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 70 (1–4) (2014) 227–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    Z. Ye, Z. Zhang, X. Jin, M. Xiao and J. Su, Study of hybrid additive manufacturing based on pulse laser wire depositing and milling, International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 88 (5–8) (2017) 2237–2248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    E. R. Denlinger, J. C. Heigel and P. Michaleris, Residual stress and distortion modeling of electron beam direct manufacturing Ti–6Al–4V, Proceedings of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 229 (10) (2015) 1803–1813.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Q. Yang, P. Zhang, L. Cheng, Z. Min, M. Chyu and A. C. To, Finite element modeling and validation of thermomechanical behavior of Ti–6Al–4V in directed energy deposition additive manufacturing, Additive Manufacturing, 12 Part B (2016) 169–177.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    M. Chiumenti, M. Cervera, A. Salmi, C. A. de Saracibar, N. Dialami and K. Matsui, Finite element modeling of multipass welding and shaped metal deposition processes, Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, 199 (37–40) (2010) 2343–2359.CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    S. Bontha, N. W. Klingbeil, P. A. Kobryn and H. L. Fraser, Thermal process maps for predicting solidification microstructure in laser fabrication of thin–wall structures, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 178 (2006) 135–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [20]
    A. Lundbäck and L.–E. Lindgren, Modelling of metal deposition, Finite Elements in Analysis and Design, 47 (10) (2011) 1169–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    S. K. Bate, R. Charles and A. Warren, Finite element analysis of a single bead–on–plate specimen using SYSWELD, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 86 (1) (2009) 73–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    A. M. Deus and J. Mazumder, Three–dimensional finite element models for the calculation of temperature and residual stress fields in laser cladding, Proc. of International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro–Optics, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA (2006) 496–505.Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    A. Crespo and R. Vilar, Finite element analysis of the rapid manufacturing of Ti–6Al–4V parts by laser powder deposition, Scripta Materialia, 63 (1) (2010) 140–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. Ding, P. Colegrove, J. Mehnen, S. Ganguly, P. M. Sequeira Almeida, F. Wang and S. Williams, Thermomechanical analysis of wire and arc additive layer manufacturing process on large multi–layer parts, Computational Materials Science, 63 (12) (2011) 3315–3322.Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    B. L. Chua, H. J. Lee, D. G. Ahn and J. G. Kim, Investigation of penetration depth and efficiency of applied heat flux in a directed energy deposition process with feeding of Ti–6Al–4V wires, Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering, 35 (2) (2018) 211–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    J. Romano, L. Ladini and M. Sadowski, Thermal modeling of laser based additive manufacturing processes within common materials, Procedia Manufacturing, 1 (2015) 238–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    ESI Group, SYSWELD Visual–Weld 12.0(2016).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    X. Wang, X. Gong and K. Chou, Scanning speed effect on mechanical properties of Ti–6Al–4V alloy processed by electron beam additive manufacturing, Procedia Manufacturing, 1 (2015) 287–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    E. Brandl, V. Michailov, B. Viehweger and C. Leyens, Deposition of Ti–6Al–4V using laser and wire, Part I: Microstructural properties of single beads, Surface and Coating Technology, 206 (6) (2011) 1120–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    M. J. Donachie, Titanium: A technical guide, Second Ed., ASM International, Ohio, USA (2000).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    G. Vastola, G. Zhang, Q. X. Pei and Y.–W. Zhang, Controlling of residual stress in additive manufacturing of Ti6Al4V by finite element modeling, Additive Manufacturing, 12 Part B (2016) 231–239.Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    M. V. Gerov, E. Y. Vladislavskaya, V. F. Terent’ev, D. V. Prosvirnin, A. G. Kolmakove and O. S. Antonova, Fatigue strength of a Ti–6Al–4V alloy produced by selective laser melting, Russian Metallurgy (Metally), 2016 (10) (2016) 935–941.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    R. Hudak, Fatigue of Ti–6Al–4V, in Biomedical Engineering–Technical Applications in Medicine, IntechOpen, ISBN 978–953–51–077–0 (2012).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    Carpenter Technology Corporation, Titanium Alloy Ti 6Al–4V datasheet, &E=269&FMT=PRINT, Accessed on 7 January (2018).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bih Lii Chua
    • 1
  • Ho Jin Lee
    • 1
  • Dong-Gyu Ahn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jae Gu Kim
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringChosun UniversityGwangjuKorea
  2. 2.Department of Nano-Convergence Mechanical SystemsKorea Institute of Machinery and MaterialsDaejeonKorea

Personalised recommendations