Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Quantitative Identification of Near-Fault Ground Motions Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition


To overcome this difficulty, this paper proposes a near-fault ground motion identification method based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD). Compared with other near-fault identification methods, such as near-fault ground motion identification method based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD), this method can accurately obtain the low-frequency signal of ground motion, and then identify near-fault ground motion more accurately. To verify the quality of near-fault ground motions identified by near-fault ground motions based on EEMD, the fault distance, pulse period and acceleration response of near-fault ground motions are analyzed. It is found that the near-fault ground motions obtained by EEMD can effectively avoid the misidentification of near-fault ground motions, and the identified near-fault ground motions have stronger near-fault characteristics.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Alavi B, Krawinkler H (1999) Effect of near-fault ground motions on the response of frame structures. In: Structural engineering in century, ASCE, Reston, VA, USA, 79–82

  2. Amiri GG, Rad AA, Hazaveh NK (2014) Wavelet-based method for generating nonstationary artificial pulse-like near-fault ground motions. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering 29(10):758–770, DOI:

  3. Baker JW (2007) Quantitative classification of near-fault ground motions using wavelet analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 97(5):1486–1501, DOI:

  4. Bray JD, Rodriguez-Marek A (2004) Characterization of forward-directivity ground motions in the near-fault region. Soil Dynamics & Earthquake Engineering 24(11):815–828, DOI:

  5. Burks LS, Baker JW (2016) A predictive model for fling-step in near-fault ground motions based on recordings and simulations. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering 80:119–126, DOI:

  6. Chen X, Wang D, Zhang R (2019) Identification of pulse periods in near-fault ground motions using the HHT method. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 109(6):2384–2398, DOI:

  7. Dabaghi M, Der Kiureghian A (2018) Simulation of orthogonal horizontal components of near-fault ground motion for specified earthquake source and site characteristics. Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics 47(6):1369–1393, DOI:

  8. Dickinson BW, Gavin HP (2011) Parametric statistical generalization of uniform-hazard earthquake ground motions. Journal of Structural Engineering 137(3):410–422, DOI:

  9. Esfahanian A, Aghakouchak AA (2017) A single-run dynamic-based approach for pushover analysis of structures subjected to near-fault pulse-like ground motions. Journal of Earthquake Engineering 23(5):725–749, DOI:

  10. Fu Q, Menun C (2004) Seismic-environment-based simulation of near-fault ground motions. Proceedings of the 13th world conference on earthquake engineering, August 1–6, Vancouver, Canada

  11. Huang NE, Shen Z, Long SR, Wu MC, Shih HH, Zheng Q, Yen N-C, Tung CC, Liu HH (1998) The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. Proceedings Mathematical Physical & Engineering Sciences 454(1971):903–995, DOI:

  12. Kaveh A, Mahdavi VR (2016) A new method for modification of ground motions using wavelet transform and enhanced colliding bodies optimization. Applied Soft Computing 47:357–369, DOI:

  13. Li RH, Li HN, Li C (2018) Seismic performance assessment of RC frame structures subjected to far-field and near-field ground motions considering strain rate effect. International Journal of Structural Stability and Dynamics 18(10):1850127, DOI:

  14. Moeindarbari H, Taghikhany T (2014) Seismic optimum design of triple friction pendulum bearing subjected to near-fault pulse-like ground motions. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization 50(4):701–716, DOI:

  15. Shahi SK, Baker JW (2011) An empirically calibrated framework for including the effects of near-fault directivity in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 101(2):742–755, DOI:

  16. Sinan A, Ufuk Y, Polat G (2005) Drift estimates in frame buildings subjected to near-fault ground motions. Journal of Structural Engineering 131(7):1014–1024, DOI:

  17. Somerville PG (2003) Magnitude scaling of the near fault rupture directivity pulse. Physics of the Earth & Planetary Interiors 137(1): 201–212, DOI:

  18. Spudich P, Chiou BSJ, Graves R, Collins N, Somerville P (2004) A formulation of directivity for earthquake sources using isochrone theory. Open-File Report 2004-1268, United States Geological Survey, Reston, VA, USA

  19. Wang XM, Huang FL, Ma G, Liu JJ (2007) An HHT-based method to eliminate short-time strong disturbance from measured signals of bridge. Journal of Central South University 14:848–852, DOI:

  20. Wang T, Zhang M, Yu Q, Zhang H (2012) Comparing the applications of EMD and EEMD on time-frequency analysis of seismic signal. Journal of Applied Geophysics 83:29–34, DOI:

  21. Wu Z, Huang NE (2005) Ensemble empirical mode decomposition: A noise-assisted data analysis method. Advances in Adaptive Data Analysis 1(1):1–41, DOI:

  22. Zhang Y, Hu Y, Zhao F, Liang J, Yang C (2005) Identification of acceleration pulses in near-fault ground motion using the EMD method. Earthquake Engineering and Engineering Vibration 4(2):201–212, DOI:

Download references


This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation Key Project of China (No. 51178080) and Doctoral Research Initiation Fund of Shandong Technology and Business University (No. BS201931). The author would like to thank the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center for the earthquake data.

Author information

Correspondence to Zhen Liu.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Z., Li, X. & Zhang, Z. Quantitative Identification of Near-Fault Ground Motions Based on Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. KSCE J Civ Eng 24, 922–930 (2020).

Download citation


  • Near-fault ground motion
  • Quantitative identification
  • Ensemble empirical mode decomposition
  • Velocity pluses
  • Earthquake