Experimental Investigation of Impact Behaviour of RC Slab with Different Reinforcement Ratios

  • Tolga Yılmaz
  • Nevzat Kıraç
  • Özgür AnilEmail author
  • R. Tuğrul Erdem
  • Gökhan Kaçaran
Structural Engineering


Reinforced concrete (RC) slabs may be exposed to the low-velocity impact load during their service periods. In low-velocity impact scenarios, the effect of strain rates has been remarkably higher than quasi-static loading because the loading duration is very short. Thus, structural responses and failure modes will be different. The present study aims to investigate dynamic response and failure modes of simply supported two-way RC slabs exposed to low-velocity impact load. In the experimental part of this study, nine RC slabs with the dimension of 1,000 × 1,000 × 80 mm were tested. The reinforcement ratio of RC slabs and the input impact energy applied to RC slabs were experimental variables investigated. A drop-weight test setup was utilized to apply impact load to RC slabs. By varying drop-height as 1,000, 1,250 and 1,500 mm, three different impact energies have been applied to RC slabs via a hammer of which weight is 84 kg. The time histories of the accelerations, displacements and impact loads were recorded. The dynamic responses obtained by tests and the failure modes observed has been interpreted in detail. Besides, a finite element model where explicit dynamic analysis is performed has been established for verification of the experimental results. There was observed good accordance between numerical and experimental results. Consequently, it is considered that the present finite element treatment can be used for the evaluation of the dynamic responses and failure modes of RC slabs exposed to low-velocity impact load.


Low-velocity impact Two-way RC slab Reinforcement ratio ABAQUS Free drop test 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



Not Applicable


  1. ABAQUS (2015) User’s manual (Version 6.12). SIMULIA, Johnston, RI, USAGoogle Scholar
  2. Anil Ö, Kantar E, Yilmaz MC (2015) Low-velocity impact behavior of RC slabs with different support types. Construction and Building Materials 93:1078–1088, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anil Ö, Tugrul R, Tokgöz MN (2018a) Investigation of lateral impact behavior of RC columns. Computers and Concrete 22(1):123–132, DOI: Google Scholar
  4. Anil Ö, Yilmaz T (2015) Low velocity impact behavior of shear deficient RC beam strengthened with CFRP strips. Steel and Composite Structures 19(2):417–439, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anil Ö, Yilmaz MC, Barmaki W (2018b) Experimental and numerical study of RC columns under lateral low-velocity impact load. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings 1–19, DOI:
  6. Astarlioglu S, Krauthammer T (2014) Response of normal-strength and ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete columns to idealized blast loads. Engineering Structures 61:1–12, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Astarlioglu S, Krauthammer T, Morency D, Tran TP (2013) Behavior of reinforced concrete columns under combined effects of axial and blast-induced transverse loads. Engineering Structures 55:26–34, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bao X, Li B (2010) Residual strength of blast damaged reinforced concrete columns. International Journal of Impact Engineering 37(3):295–308, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Birtel V, Mark P (2006) Parameterised finite element modelling of RC beam shear failure. Proceedings of the 19th Annual International ABAQUS Users’Conference, Boston, January, 95–108Google Scholar
  10. CEB (1990) Concrete structure under impact and impulsive loading. Comite Euro-International Du Beton, Dubrovnik, LatviaGoogle Scholar
  11. Do TV, Pham TM, Hao H (2018) Numerical investigation of the behavior of precast concrete segmental columns subjected to vehicle collision. Engineering Structures 156:375–393, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Erdem RT (2014) Prediction of acceleration and impact Force values of a reinforced concrete slab. Computers and Concrete 14(5):563–575, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Erdem RT, Gücüyen E (2017) Non-linear analysis of reinforced concrete slabs under impact effect. Gradevinar 69:479–487Google Scholar
  14. Fan W, Yuan W, Yang Z, Fan Q (2011) Dynamic demand of bridge structure subjected to vessel impact using simplified interaction model. Journal of Bridge Engineering 16(1):117, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hao Y, Hao H (2014) Influence of the concrete DIF model on the numerical predictions of RC wall responses to blast loadings. Engineering Structures 73:24–38, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Iqbal MA, Kumar V, Mittal AK (2019) Experimental and numerical studies on the drop impact resistance of prestressed concrete plates. International Journal of Impact Engineering 123:98–117, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kamali AZ (2012) Shear strength of reinforced concrete beams subjected to blast loading master thesis, royal institute of technology (KTH). Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Division of Structural Engineering and Bridges, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  18. Kantar E, Anil O (2012) Low velocity impact behavior of concrete beam strengthened with CFRP strip. Steel and Composite Structures 12(3):207–230, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kishi N, Kurihashi Y, Ghadimi Khasraghy S, Mikami H (2011) Numerical simulation of impact response behavior of rectangular reinforced concrete slabs under falling-weight impact loading. Applied Mechanics and Materials 82:266–271, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kyei C, Braimah A (2017) Effects of transverse reinforcement spacing on the response of reinforced concrete columns subjected to blast loading. Engineering Structures 142:148–164, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Li C, Hao H, Bi K (2017a) Numerical study on the seismic performance of precast segmental concrete columns under cyclic loading. Engineering Structures 148:373–386, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li J, Wu C, Hao H, Liu Z (2017b) Post-blast capacity of ultra-high performance concrete columns. Engineering Structures 134:289–302, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Liao W, Li M, Zhang W, Tian Z (2017) Experimental studies and numerical simulation of behavior of RC beams retrofitted with HSSWM-HPM under impact loading. Engineering Structures 149: 131–146, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Liu B, Fan W, Guo W, Chen B, Liu R (2017) Experimental investigation and improved FE modeling of axially-loaded circular RC columns under lateral impact loading. Engineering Structures 152:619–642, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malvar LJ, Ross CA (1998) Review of strain rate effects for concrete in tension. ACI Material Journal 95(6):735–739Google Scholar
  26. Mander JB, Priestley MJN, Park R (1989) Theoretical stress-strain model for confined concrete. Journal of Structural Engineering 114(8):1804–1826CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mokhatar SN, Abdullah R, Kueh ABH (2013) Computational impact responses of reinforced concrete slabs. Computers and Concrete 12(1):37–51, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Murtiadi SÃ, Marzouk H (2001) Behaviour of high-strength concrete plates under impact loading. Magazine of Concrete Research 53(1): 43–50, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Obeidat YT, Heyden S, Dahlblom O (2010) The effect of CFRP and CFRP/concrete interface models when modelling retrofitted RC beams with FEM. Composite Structures 92(6):1391–1398, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Othman H, Marzouk H (2016) An experimental investigation on the effect of steel reinforcement on impact response of reinforced concrete plates. International Journal of Impact Engineering 88:12–21, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Othman H, Marzouk H (2017) Finite-element analysis of reinforced concrete plates subjected to repeated impact loads. Journal of Structural Engineering 143(9):1–16, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Othman H, Marzouk H (2018) Applicability of damage plasticity constitutive model for ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact loads. International Journal of Impact Engineering 114:20–31, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Radnić J, Matešan D, Grgić N, Baloević G (2015) Impact testing of RC slabs strengthened with CFRP strips. Composite Structures 121:90–103, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Riedel W, Thoma K, Hiermaier S, Schmolinske E (1999) Penetration of reinforced concrete by BETA-B-500 — Numerical analysis using a new macroscopic concrete model for hydrocodes. 9th International Symposium on the Interaction of the Effects of Munitions with Structures, ISIEMS-9, May 3–7, Berlin, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  35. Sha Y, Hao H (2013) Laboratory tests and numerical simulations of barge impact on circular reinforced concrete piers. Engineering Structures 46:593–605, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wu KC, Li B, Tsai KC (2011) Residual axial compression capacity of localized blast-damaged RC columns. International Journal of Impact Engineering 38(1):29–40, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Xu J, Wu C, Xiang H, Su Y, Li Z (2016) Behaviour of ultra high performance fibre reinforced concrete columns subjected to blast loading. Engineering Structures 118:97–107, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yilmaz T, Kıraç N, Anil Ö (2019) Experimental investigation of axial loaded reinforced concrete square column subjected to lateral low-velocity impact loading. Structural Concrete, 1–21, DOI: 10.1002/suco.201800276Google Scholar
  39. Yilmaz T, Kiraç N, Anil Ö, Erdem RT, Sezer C (2018) Low-velocity impact behaviour of two way RC slab strengthening with CFRP strips. Construction and Building Materials 186:1046–1063, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang X, Hao H, Li C (2017) The effect of concrete shear key on the performance of segmental columns subjected to impact loading. Advances in Structural Engineering 20(3):352–373, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zineddin M, Krauthammer T (2007) Dynamic response and behavior of reinforced concrete slabs under impact loading. International Journal of Impact Engineering 34(9):1517–1534, DOI: CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Department of Civil EngineeringEskişehirTurkey
  2. 2.Gazi University, Department of Civil EngineeringAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Manisa Celal Bayar University, Department of Civil EngineeringManisaTurkey

Personalised recommendations