KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3924–3934 | Cite as

Measure for Reducing the Tensile Stress in Cement-Treated Soil Layer in Deep Excavation in Soft Clay

  • Li Wang
  • Yong Liu
  • Yutao PanEmail author
  • William Danovan
  • Jeyatharan Kumarasamy
  • Fook-Hou Lee
Geotechnical Engineering


Cement-stabilised soil layers (CSSLs) are often created to enhance lateral support to the retaining wall below the excavation level, such as those widely used in the construction of common service tunnels in Singapore. The CSSLs may be subjected to tensile stress or even cracks due to the underlying uplift pressure. Fully-coupled effective stress analyses were carried out using ABAQUS to explore the effectiveness of three measures for reducing the upheave-induced hogging of the CSSLs, i.e., increasing the thickness, usage of pressure-relief wells and usage of openings in the CSSLs. The results show that the usage of the opening is a more effective and more widely applicable measure compared to the other two measures.


ground improvement opening excavation tension uplift 


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This study is part of a research project funded by the Land Transport Authority (LTA) of Singapore on the optimisation of earth retaining stabilizing structures for deep excavations. The support of LTA is gratefully acknowledged. The first Author would also like to acknowledge for the support of the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province of China (Project No. 20180550716) and the China Scholarship Council, which funded her study and attachment to the National University of Singapore. The second author would like to acknowledge the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51879203).


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Copyright information

© Korean Society of Civil Engineers 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringDalian Jiaotong UniversityDalianChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Water Resources and Hydropower Engineering ScienceWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.Dept. of Civil & Environmental EngineeringNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Thomson-East Coast Line Civil Team 5Land Transport AuthoritySingaporeSingapore
  5. 5.Dept. of Geotechnical and TunnelsLand Transport AuthoritySingaporeSingapore

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